Potency of an inactivated avian influenza vaccine prepared from a non-pathogenic H5N1 reassortant virus generated between isolates from migratory ducks in Asia
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A reassortant influenza virus, A/duck/Hokkaido/Vac-1/2004 (H5N1) (Dk/Vac-1/04), was generated between non-pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from migratory ducks in Asia. Dk/Vac-1/04 (H5N1) virus particles propagated in embryonated chicken eggs were inactivated with formalin and adjuvanted with mineral oil to form a water-in-oil emulsion. The resulting vaccine was injected intramuscularly into chickens. The chickens were challenged with either of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus strains A/chicken/Yamaguchi/7/2004 (H5N1) or A/swan/Mongolia/3/2005 (H5N1) at 21 days post-vaccination (p. v.), when the geometric mean serum HI titers of the birds was 64 with the challenge virus strains. The vaccinated chickens were protected from manifestation of disease signs upon challenge with either of the highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. However, challenge virus was recovered at low titers from the birds at 2 and 4 days post-challenge (p.c.). All 3 chickens challenged at 6 days p.v. died, whereas 3 chickens challenged at 8 days p.v. survived. These results indicate that the present vaccine confers clinical protection and reduction of virus shedding against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus challenge and should be useful as an optional tool in emergency cases.
KeywordsH5N1 Virus Avian Influenza Virus Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus
We extend special thanks to the National Institute of Animal Health for providing the A/chicken/Yamaguchi/7/04 (H5N1) influenza virus strain. The present work is supported in part by the Program of Founding Research Centers for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Disease from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology, Japan, and Japan Racing and Livestock Promotion Foundation. N. I. is the fellow of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.
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