Archives of Virology

, 152:1009 | Cite as

Diversity and evolution of a newly emerged North American Type 1 porcine arterivirus: analysis of isolates collected between 1999 and 2004

  • Y. Fang
  • P. Schneider
  • W. P. Zhang
  • K. S. Faaberg
  • E. A. Nelson
  • R. R. R. Rowland
Brief Report


European-like Type 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) isolates, known as North American (NA) Type 1 PRRSV, appeared in United States (U.S.) swine herds in 1999. Their diversity and evolution were studied over a five-year period by constructing phylogenetic trees using nsp2 and ORF5 sequences of 20 NA Type 1 isolates, including the only known isolate from Hawaii. All but two of the isolates possessed the same 51-nt deletion in nsp2, suggesting a clonal origin. Parsimony and distance analysis showed that viruses could be placed into two distinct sub-clades, which were similar for both nsp2 and ORF5. An incongruity between the two trees identified one isolate, 04-41, as the product of recombination. Recombination analysis using SimPlot identified a break point located downstream of the nsp2/3 junction. Results from this study suggest that NA Type 1 PRRSV in the U.S. is a well-established and rapidly evolving group. However, the forces driving genetic diversity and separation are complex and remain to be elucidated.


Respiratory Syndrome Virus North American Lelystad Virus North American Type Nsp2 Sequence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Y. Fang
    • 1
  • P. Schneider
    • 2
  • W. P. Zhang
    • 1
  • K. S. Faaberg
    • 3
  • E. A. Nelson
    • 1
  • R. R. R. Rowland
    • 2
  1. 1.Center for Infectious Disease Research and Vaccinology, Department of Veterinary ScienceSouth Dakota State UniversityBrookingsU.S.A.
  2. 2.Department of Diagnostic Medicine and PathobiologyKansas State UniversityManhattanU.S.A.
  3. 3.Department of Veterinary and Biomedical SciencesUniversity of MinnesotaSaint PaulU.S.A.

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