Application of Phi29 DNA polymerase in identification and full-length clone inoculation of tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand virus and tobacco leaf curl Thailand virus
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Tomato plants grown in greenhouses in Thailand developed typical symptoms of a tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand virus (TYLCTHV) infection. After confirmation by ELISA, a Phi29 DNA polymerase approach was chosen for further molecular analysis of TYLCTHV. Total DNA purified from infected tomato leaves was subjected to rolling-circle amplification (RCA) of DNA-A and DNA-B of TYLCVTHV. In addition, a new monopartite geminivirus with a putative recombinant background was identified by RCA and tentatively named tobacco leaf curl Thailand virus (TbLCTHV). To confirm the composition of both geminiviruses, full-length clones were established and used for inoculation of Nicotiana benthamiana by particle bombardment or agroinfection. When TYLCTHV DNA-A and DNA-B were applied together by particle bombardment or agroinfection, severe stunting, yellowing, and leaf curling were observed. Whereas TYLCTHV DNA-A and TbLCTHV revealed no infection after'particle bombardment, similar symptoms in N. benthamiana, like leaf upward curling and yellowing were observed following agroinfection.
DNA components of TYLCTHV DNA-A and DNA-B were excised from their respective plasmids, ligated, and amplified by Phi29 DNA polymerase. The ability of viral concatamere inoculation was evaluated in particle co-bombardment experiments on N. benthamiana. Thus, particle bombardment of RCA-derived multimeric products proved to be at least as effective as inoculation with a partial repeat construct and tenfold as effective as inoculation with excised unit-lengths of DNA-A and DNA-B of TYLCVTHV when using each DNA component in an amount of 5 ng.
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