Archives of Virology

, Volume 152, Issue 2, pp 245–255 | Cite as

Genetic relatedness and pathogenicity of equine herpesvirus 1 isolated from onager, zebra and gazelle

  • E. S. M. Ibrahim
  • M. Kinoh
  • T. Matsumura
  • M. Kennedy
  • G. P. Allen
  • T. Yamaguchi
  • H. Fukushi


Equine herpesvirus 1 was isolated from an onager in 1985, a zebra in 1986 and a Thomson’s gazelle in 1996 in USA. The genetic relatedness and pathogenicity of these three viruses were investigated based on the nucleotide sequences of the glycoprotein G (gG) gene, experimental infection in hamsters, and comparison with horse isolates. The gG gene sequences of EHV-1 from onager and zebra were identical. The gG gene sequences of the gazelle isolate showed 99.5% identity to those of onager and zebra isolates. The gG gene sequences of EHV-1 isolated from horses were 99.9–100% identical and 98, 98 and 97.8% similar to gG from onager, zebra and gazelle isolates, respectively. Hamsters inoculated with onager, zebra and gazelle isolates had severe weight loss, compared with hamsters inoculated with horse isolates. The histopathological findings were related to the virulence of each isolate. The results indicated that EHV-1 isolates from onager, zebra and gazelle differ from horse EHV-1 and are much more virulent in hamsters.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allen, GP, Bryans, JT 1986Molecular epizootiology, pathogenesis, and prophylaxis of equine herpesvirus-1 infectionProg Vet Microbiol Immunol278144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Balan, P, Davis-Poynter, N, Bell, S, Atkinson, H, Browne, H, Minson, T 1994An analysis of the in vitro and in vivo phenotypes of mutants of herpes simplex virus 1 lacking glycoproteins gG, gE, gI, or the putative gJJ Gen Virol7512451258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bryant, NA, Davis-Poynter, N, Vanderplasschen, A, Alcami, A 2003Glycoprotein G isoforms from some alphaherpesviruses function as broad-spectrum chemokine binding proteinsEMBO J22833846PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chowdhury, SI, Kubin, G, Ludwig, H 1986Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) induced abortions and paralysis in a Lipizzaner stud: a contribution to the classification of equine herpesvirusesArch Virol90273288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chowdhury, SI, Ludwing, H, Buhk, H-J 1988Molecular biological characterization of equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) isolates from ruminant hostsVirus Res11127139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Colle, CF, Flowers, CC, O’Callaghan, DJ 1992Open reading frames encoding a protein kinase, homolog of glycoprotein X of pseudorabies virus, and a novel glycoprotein map within the unique short segment of equine herpesvirus type 1Virology188545557PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Crabb, BS, Nagesha, HS, Studdert, MJ 1992Identification of equine herpesvirus 4 glycoprotein G: a type-specific, secreted glycoproteinVirology190143154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Crabb, BS, Studdert, MJ 1993Epitopes of glycoprotein G of equine herpesviruses 4 and 1 located near the C termini elicit type-specific antibody responses in the natural hostJ Virol6763326338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Crabb, BS, Studdert, MJ 1995Equine herpesvirus 4 (equine rhinopneumonitis virus) and 1 (equine abortion virus)Adv Virus Res45153190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Crandell, RA, Ichimura, H, Kit, S 1988Isolation and comparative restriction endonuclease DNA fingerprinting of equine herpesvirus-1 from cattleAm J Vet Res4918071813PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Csellner, H, Walker, C, Wellington, JE, McLure, LE, Love, DN, Whalley, JM 2000EHV-1 glycoprotein D (EHV-1 gD) is required for virus entry and cell-cell fusion, and an EHV-1 gD deletion mutant induces a protective immune response in miceArch Virol14523712385PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Drummer, HE, Studdert, MJ, Crabb, BS 1998Equine herpesvirus-4 glycoprotein G is secreted as a disulphide-linked homodimer and is present as two homodimeric species in the virionJ Gen Virol7912051213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Ficorilli, N, Studdert, MJ, Crabb, BS 1995The nucleotide sequence of asinine [sic] herpesvirus 3 glycoprotein G indicates that the donkey virus is closely related to equine herpesvirus 1Arch Virol14016531662PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fukushi H, Taniguchi A, Matsumura T, Kirisawa R, Masegi T, Hirai K (2000) Comparison of the neuropathogenicity of equine herpesvirus-1 and equine herpesvirus-9 (gazelle herpesvirus-1) in hamsters. In: Equine infectious diseases VIII, Proc, 8th Int Conference of Infectious Diseases. R&W Publications, New Market, pp 513–544Google Scholar
  15. Fukushi, H, Taniguchi, A, Yasuda, K, Yanai, T, Masegi, T, Yamaguchi, T, Hirai, K 2000A hamster model of equine herpesvirus 9 induced encephalitisJ Neurovirol6314319PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Fukushi, H, Tomita, T, Taniguchi, A, Ochiai, Y, Kirisawa, R, Matsumura, T, Yanai, T, Masegi, T, Yamaguchi, T, Hirai, K 1997Gazelle herpesvirus 1: a new neurotropic herpesvirus immunologically related to equine herpesvirus 1Virology2263444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hartley, CA, Drummer, HE, Studdert, MJ 1999The nucleotide sequence of the glycoprotein G homologue of equine herpesvirus 3 (EHV3) indicates EHV3 is a distinct equid alphaherpesvirusArch Virol14420232033PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ibrahim, ESM, Pagmajav, O, Yamaguchi, T, Matsumura, T, Fukushi, H 2004Growth and virulence alterations of equine herpesvirus 1 by insertion of a green fluorescent protein gene in the intergenic region between ORFs 62 and 63Microbiol Immunol48831842Google Scholar
  19. Jeannmougin, F, Thompson, JD, Gouy, M, Higgins, DG, Gibson, TJ 1998Multiple sequence alignment with Clustal XTrends Biochem Sci23403405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kennedy, MA, Ramsay, E, Diderrich, V, Richman, L, Allen, GP, Potgieter, LND 1996Encephalitis associated with a variant of equine herpesvirus 1 in a Thomson’s gazelle (Gazella thomsoni)J Zoo Wildlife Med27533538Google Scholar
  21. Kinyili, JH, Thorsen, J 1979Antigenic comparisons between herpesviruses isolated from fallow deer in Alberta and the viruses of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, equine rhinopneumonitis and DN-599, a non-IBR bovine herpesvirusJ Wildlife Dis15339341Google Scholar
  22. Maeda, K, Mizukoshi, F, Hamano, M, Kai, K, Iwata, H, Kondo, T, Matsumura, T 2004Development of an equine herpesvirus type 4-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a B-cell epitope as an antigenJ Clin Microbiol4210951098PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Montali, RJ, Allen, GP, Bryans, JT, Phillips, LG, Bush, M 1985Equine herpesvirus type 1 abortion in an onager and suspected herpesvirus myelitis in a zebraJ Am Vet Med Ass18712481249Google Scholar
  24. O’Callaghan, DJ, Genty, GA, Randall, CC 1983

    The equine herpesviruses

    Comprehensive virology, series 2Plenum PressNew York215318
    Google Scholar
  25. Pagamjav, O, Sakata, T, Matsumura, T, Yamaguchi, T, Fukushi, H 2005Natural recombination between equine herpesviruses 1 and 4 in the ICP4 geneMicrobiol Immunol49167179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Rebhun, WC, Jenkins, DH, Riis, RC, Dill, SG, Dubovi, EJ, Torres, A 1988An epizootic of blindness and encephalitis associated with a herpesvirus indistinguishable from equine herpesvirus 1 in a herd of alpacas and llamasJ Am Vet Med Ass192953956Google Scholar
  27. Saitou, N, Nei, M 1987The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic treesMol Biol Evol4406425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Telford, EA, Watson, MS, McBride, K, Davison, AJ 1992The DNA sequence of equine herpesvirus-1Virology189304316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Weigler, BJ 1992Biology of B virus in macaque and human hosts: a reviewClin Infect Dis14555567PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Wolff, PL, Meehan, TP, Basgall, EJ, Allen, GP, Sudberg, JP 1986Abortion and perinatal foal mortality associated with equine herpesvirus type 1 in a herd of Grevy’s zebraJ Am Vet Med Ass18911851186Google Scholar
  31. Yanai, T, Masegi, T, Tomia, A, Kudo, T, Yamazoe, K, Iwasaki, T, Kimura, N, Katou, A, Kotera, S, Ueda, K 1995Odontoameloblastoma in a Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata)Vet Pathol325759PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. S. M. Ibrahim
    • 1
  • M. Kinoh
    • 2
  • T. Matsumura
    • 3
  • M. Kennedy
    • 4
  • G. P. Allen
    • 5
  • T. Yamaguchi
    • 1
    • 2
  • H. Fukushi
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Applied Veterinary Sciences, United Graduate School of Veterinary SciencesGifu UniversityGifuJapan
  2. 2.Laboratory of Veterinary Microbiology, Faculty of Applied Biological SciencesGifu UniversityGifuJapan
  3. 3.Epizootic Research Station, Equine Research InstituteThe Japanese Racing AssociationKokubunjiJapan
  4. 4.Department of Comparative MedicineUniversity of TennesseeKnoxvilleU.S.A.
  5. 5.Department of Veterinary ScienceUniversity of KentuckyLexingtonU.S.A.

Personalised recommendations