Archives of Virology

, 151:1635 | Cite as

Genetic analysis of noroviruses associated with fatalities in healthcare facilities

  • M. Okada
  • T. Tanaka
  • M. Oseto
  • N. Takeda
  • K. Shinozaki
Brief Report


Norovirus outbreaks occurred in 236 healthcare facilities for the elderly in Japan during the winter of 2004–2005. Three norovirus strains associated with three fatal clinical courses were isolated from geographically separate facilities and genetically analyzed along with three strains from non-fatal cases in the same season. All six isolates were classified as the GII-4 genotype. No new variant strains like those observed in Europe in 2002 and 2004 were found in fatal cases, and the three outbreaks were deemed to have been caused by genetically close conventional norovirus GII-4 strains.


Fatal Case Gastroenteritis Outbreak Capsid Region RdRp Region Small Round Structure Virus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Okada
    • 1
  • T. Tanaka
    • 2
  • M. Oseto
    • 3
  • N. Takeda
    • 4
  • K. Shinozaki
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of VirologyChiba Prefectural Institute of Public HealthChibaJapan
  2. 2.Sakai City Institute of Public HealthSakaiJapan
  3. 3.Microbiology DivisionEhime Prefecture Institute of Public Health and Environmental ScienceMatsuyamaJapan
  4. 4.Department of Virology IINational Institute of Infectious DiseasesTokyoJapan

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