Molecular epidemiology of enterovirus 71 over two decades in an Australian urban community Brief Report First Online: 22 December 2005 Received: 09 May 2005 Accepted: 26 October 2005 DOI:
Cite this article as: Sanders, S., Herrero, L., McPhie, K. et al. Arch Virol (2006) 151: 1003. doi:10.1007/s00705-005-0684-9 Summary.
Enterovirus 71 (EV71), first isolated in 1969, has been responsible for numerous outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) with a small proportion of cases associated with neurological disease. Since 1997 there has been a significant increase in both the prevalence and virulence of EV71 in the Asia-Pacific region. We have examined the genetic diversity of EV71 in a large Australian city (Sydney N.S.W.) over a nineteen-year period. We determined the VP1 gene sequence of forty-eight EV71 strains isolated between 1983 and 2001. Analysis by molecular phylogeny revealed the presence of four subgenogroups B2, B4, C1 and C2. The results indicate that the major lineage circulating in Sydney N.S.W. was subgenogroup C1 with a recent switch in dominance to B4 in 2000 and 2001.
References Brown, BA, Oberste, MS, Alexander, JP, Kennett, ML, Pallansch, MA 1999 Molecular epidemiology and evolution of enterovirus 71 strains isolated from 1970 to 1998 J Virol 73 9969 9975 PubMed Google Scholar Brown, BA, Pallansch, MA 1995 Complete nucleotide sequence of enterovirus 71 is distinct from poliovirus Virus Res 39 195 205 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Cardosa, MJ, Perera, D, Brown, BA, Cheon, D, Chan, HM, Chan, KP, Cho, H, McMinn, P 2003 Molecular epidemiology of human enterovirus 71 strains and recent outbreaks in the Asia-Pacific region: comparative analysis of the VP1 and VP4 genes Emerg Infect Dis 9 461 468 PubMed Google Scholar Chan, LG, Parashar, UD, Lye, MS, Ong, FG, Zaki, SR, Alexander, JP, Ho, KK, Han, LL, Pallansch, MA, Suleiman, AB, Jegathesan, M, Anderson, LJ 2000 Deaths of children during an outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Sarawak, Malaysia: clinical and pathological characteristics of the disease Clin Infect Dis 31 678 683 PubMed Google Scholar
Gaeta BA, Balding K (1997) ANGIS bioinformatics handbook, volume 3. CSIRO Publishing, Sydney, Australia
Gilbert, GL, Dickson, KE, Waters, MJ, Kennet, ML, Land, SA, Sneddon, M 1988 Outbreak of enterovirus 71 infection in Victoria, Australia, with a high incidence of neurologic involvement Pediatr Infect Dis J 7 484 488 PubMed Google Scholar Herrero, L, Lee, CSM, Hurrelbrink, R, Chua, BH, Chua, KB, McMinn, PC 2003 Molecular epidemiology of enterovirus 71 in peninsular Malaysia, 1997–2000 Arch Virol 148 1369 1385 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Kennett, ML, Birch, CJ, Lewis, FA, Yung, AP, Locarnini, SA, Gust, ID 1974 Enterovirus type 71 infection in Melbourne Bull World Health Organ 51 609 615 PubMed Google Scholar Kimura, M 1980 A simple method for estimating evolutionary rates of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences J Mol Evol 16 111 120 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar McMinn, PC 2002 An overview of the evolution of enterovirus 71 and its clinical and public health significance FEMS Microbiol Rev 26 91 107 PubMed Google Scholar McMinn, P, Lindsay, K, Perera, D, Chan, HM, Chan, KP, Cardosa, MJ 2001 Phylogenetic analysis of enterovirus 71 strains isolated during linked epidemics in Malaysia, Singapore, and Western Australia J Virol 75 7732 7738 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Nolan, MA, Craig, ME, Lahra, MM, Rawlinson, WD, Prager, PC, Williams, GD, Bye, AME, Andrews, PI 2003 Survival after pulmonary edema due to enterovirus 71 encephalitis Neurology 60 1651 1656 PubMed Google Scholar Page, R 1996 TreeView: an application to display phylogenetic trees on personal computers Comput Appl Biosci 12 357 358 PubMed Google Scholar Pöyry, T, Hyypia, T, Horsnell, C, Kinnunen, L, Hovi, T, Stanway, G 1994 Molecular analysis of Coxsackievirus A16 reveals a new genetic group of enteroviruses Virology 202 982 987 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Schmidt, NJ, Lennette, EH, Ho, HH 1974 An apparently new enterovirus isolated from patients with disease of the central nervous system J Infect Dis 129 304 309 PubMed Google Scholar Shih, SR, Ho, MS, Lin, KH, Wu, SL, Chen, YT, Wu, CN, Lin, TY, Chang, LY, Tsao, KC, Ning, HC, Chang, PY, Jung, SM, Hsueh, C, Chang, KS 2000 Genetic analysis of enterovirus 71 isolated from fatal and non-fatal cases of hand, foot and mouth disease during an epidemic in Taiwan, 1998 Virus Res 68 127 136 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Shimizu, H, Utama, A, Onnimala, N, Li, C, Li-Bi, Z, Yu-Jie, M, Pongsuwanna, Y, Miyamura, T 2004 Molecular epidemiology of enterovirus 71 infection in the Western Pacific region Pediatr Int 46 231 235 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Singh, S, Chow, VTK, Chan, KP, Ling, AE, Poh, CL 2000 RT-PCR, nucleotide, amino acid and phylogenetic analyses of enterovirus type 71 strains from Asia J Virol Methods 88 193 204 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Tagaya, I, Tachibana, K 1975 Epidemic of hand, foot and mouth disease in Japan, 1972–1973: difference in epidemiologic and virologic features from the previous one Jpn J Med Sci Biol 28 231 234 PubMed Google Scholar Thompson, J, Higgins, D, Gibson, T 1994 CLUSTAL W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weigh matrix choice Nucleic Acids Res 22 4673 4680 PubMed Google Scholar