Detection of norovirus and sapovirus infection among children with gastroenteritis in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
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This report describes norovirus (NoV) and sapovirus (SaV) infections in hospitalized children with acute sporadic gastroenteritis in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Stool specimens collected between December 1999 and November 2000 were examined for NoV and SaV using reverse transcription-PCR and phylogenetic analysis. NoVs were detected in 72 of 448 rotavirus-negative specimens, counted as part of an overall annual detection rate of 5.4% (72 of 1,339 children). This included four NoV genogroup I (GI) strains and 68 NoV GII strains. Only one SaV GI strain was detected in the rotavirus-negative specimens. Over 73% of the NoV sequences belonged to GII/4 (Lordsdale cluster) and were detected in all months except March. We also detected GII/3 strains (Saitama U201 cluster), a naturally occurring recombinant NoV, between January 2000 and March 2000 but not after this period. Other NoV strains belonging to GI/4, GI/8, GII/1, and GII/7 were also detected but were infrequent. In addition, two almost identical NoV GII strains (strains 026 and 0703) collected six months apart were classified into a new genotype that includes the Mc37 strain, which was previously shown to be a recombinant NoV. During this one-year study, the NoV prevailed at the end of the rainy season and the beginning of the dry season. Further epidemiological studies may be necessary to determine whether the GII/4 strains continue to dominant in this region.
KeywordsGastroenteritis Stool Specimen Mc37 Strain Sapovirus Annual Detection
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