Variations in the Temperature Regime Across the Mediterranean During the Last Century and their Relationship with Circulation Indices
Circulation types were identified by means of zonal and meridional indices calculated separately over ten different regions of 20°×20° over the Mediterranean and Europe. Seasonal temperature trends in 22 grid boxes of 5°×5° covering the entire Mediterranean, and at six stations Lisbon, Madrid, Florence, Luqa (Malta), Athens and Jerusalem, were calculated.
A warming trend in the period 1873–1989 was detected. The warming is more evident in the western Mediterranean with an average rate of about 0.4 [°C/100 yr], than in the eastern Mediterranean with an increase of only 0.2 [°C/100 yr]. A cooling trend in autumn in the eastern Mediterranean with an average rate of −0.5 [°C/100 yr] was detected and attributed to an increase in northerly meridional circulation in that region.
Warming trends at Lisbon, Madrid, Florence, Athens and Jerusalem, were more important than the trends in the grid boxes containing these stations. This rapid warming was attributed to urban effects. No such effects were found in Luqa due to its location and the lack of urban effects there.
Temperatures at Luqa, Athens and Jerusalem are highly positively correlated. Likewise, temperatures at Lisbon and Madrid. Temperatures at Florence are either correlated with Madrid or with Luqa. Negative or no correlations were found between Lisbon or Madrid with Athens or Jerusalem, except during the winter. This was attributed to the fact that favourable circulation for high temperatures in the eastern stations was opposite to the favourable circulation for high temperatures in the western stations and vice versa.
Finally, the above reinforces the concept of a Mediterranean Oscillation between the western and eastern basins.
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