The Relationship Between some Large-scale Atmospheric Parameters and Rainfall over Southeast Asia: A Comparison with Features over India
Monthly rainfall data for 135 stations for periods varying from 25 to 125 years are utilised to investigate the rainfall climatology over the southeast Asian monsoon regime. Monthly rainfall patterns for the regions north of equator show that maximum rainfall along the west coasts occurs during the summer monsoon period, while the maximum along the east coasts is observed during the northeast monsoon period. Over the Indonesian region (south of the equator) maximum rainfall is observed west of 125 °E during northern winter and east of 125 °E during northern summer.
The spatial relationships of the seasonal rainfall (June to September) with the large scale parameters – the Subtropical Ridge (STR) position over the Indian and the west Pacific regions, the Darwin Pressure Tendency (DPT) and the Northern Hemisphere Surface Temperature (NHST) – reveal that within the Asian monsoon regime, not only are there any regions which are in-phase with Indian monsoon rainfall, but there are also regions which are out-of-phase. The spatial patterns of correlation coefficients with all the parameters are similar, with in-phase relationships occurring over the Indian region, some inland regions of Thailand, central parts of Brunei and the Indonesian region lying between 120° to 140 °E. However, northwest Philippines and some southern parts of Kampuchea and Vietnam show an out-of-phase relationship. Even the first Empirical Orthogonal Function of seasonal rainfall shows similar spatial configuration, suggesting that the spatial correlation patterns depict the most dominant mode of interannual rainfall variability. The influence of STR and DPT (NHST) penetrates (does not penetrate) upto the equatorial regions. Possible dynamic causes leading to the observed correlation structure are also discussed.
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