Extreme climatic phenomena include prolonged heavy precipitation as well as long-lasting absence thereof. They are a consequence of weather anomalies and have many dangerous effects such as floods and droughts. This study aims to characterise the annual and long-term variability of the highest (Pmax) and lowest (Pmin) monthly precipitation totals and their relationship with atmospheric circulation. To achieve the above, use is made of 14 secular series (1881–2018) of precipitation from the Polish Carpathians and the calendar of circulation types over southern Poland prepared by T. Niedźwiedź (1981, 2019). On account of the variation in their relief, the Polish Carpathians are an area with a very great temporal and spatial variability in precipitation, ranging from complete absence to 500 mm per month. Pmax demonstrates a more noticeable annual frequency pattern, with a predominance in summer months, while Pmin shows smaller variations in individual months. Both Pmax and Pmin are characterised by irregular fluctuations in precipitation totals, with no statistically significant trend in their changes, which reflects the absence of a trend as regards overall precipitation volumes in this area. The study confirms an influence of the direction of air mass advection and (anti)cyclonicity of flow on Pmax and Pmin.
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We thank Mr. Paweł Pilch and Dr. Martin Cahn for reviewing the English.
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Twardosz, R., Cebulska, M. Temporal variability of the highest and the lowest monthly precipitation totals in the Polish Carpathian Mountains (1881–2018). Theor Appl Climatol (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-019-03079-1