Distinguishing changes in the Hadley circulation edge
The studies on poleward expansion of the Hadley circulation have mainly concentrated on linear trends with global warming. There is no consensus on how the edge of the Hadley circulation has been affected by the dynamical linkage to causes of change. Here, this study strives to make a robust assessment of the changes in the edge latitude of the Hadley circulation by comparing two reanalysis datasets and two theoretical models, namely the Held and Hou. J Atmos Res 37: 515-533; (1980) model (HH80) and Held (2000) model (He00). A poleward shift in both hemispheres emerged after the mid-1990s in the two reanalysis datasets, except for the Northern Hemisphere from ERA-Interim. Comparing the edge latitudes of the two reanalysis datasets, HH80 (He00) is seen to be out of phase (in-phase) in the Hadley circulation edge. He00 only shows interdecadal change regarding the poleward expansion of the Hadley circulation. We found that the dominant factors affecting change in the edge latitude of the Hadley circulation were the subtropical static stability and subtropical tropopause height. The changes in the Hadley circulation in the Northern Hemisphere (Southern Hemisphere) are associated with negative ENSO and positive AO (positive SAM).
KeywordsHadley circulation Hadley circulation edge Tropopause height Static stability Held model
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) through a Global Research Laboratory (GRL) grant (MEST 2011-0021927) and the Institute for Basic Science (project code IBS-R028-D1).
- Birner T (2010) Recent widening of the tropical belt from global tropopause statistics: sensitivities. J Geophys Res Atmospheres 115(D23)Google Scholar
- Caballero R (2008) Hadley cell bias in climate models linked to extratropical eddy stress. Geophys Res Lett. https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL035084
- Davis NA, Davis SM (2018) Reconciling Hadley cell expansion trend estimated in reanalysis. Geophy Res Lett. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018GL079593
- Frierson DMW (2006) Robust increases in midlatitude static stability in simulations of global warming. Geophys Res Lett. https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL027504
- Frierson DMW, Lu J, Chen G (2007) Width of the Hadley cell in simple and comprehensive general circulation models. Geophys Res Lett. https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL031115
- Grotjahn R (1993) Global atmosphere circulations-observations and theories. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 249–264Google Scholar
- Held IM (2000) The general circulation of the atmosphere Proc. Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Program Woods Hole, MA, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute 1–70 https://www.gfdl.noaa.gov/wp-content/uploads/files/user_files/ih/lectures/woods_hole.pdf
- Holton JR (1994) An introduction to dynamic meteorology. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Korty RL, Schneider T (2008) Extent of Hadley circulations in dry atmospheres. Geophys Res Lett. https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL03584
- Lorenz EN (1957) Static stability and atmospheric energy, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Meteorology science report. no. 9 Cambridge Mass (OCoLC) 647423536Google Scholar
- Lu J, Vecchi GA, Reichler T (2007) Expansion of the Hadley cell under global warming. Geophys Res Let. https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL028443
- Son S-W et al (2010) Impact of stratospheric ozone on Southern Hemisphere circulation change: a multimodel assessment. J Geophys Res. https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JD014271