Downstream effect of Hengduan Mountains on East China in the REMO regional climate model
- 109 Downloads
The Hengduan Mountains and Tibetan Plateau possess unique topographical characteristics that serve as an effective blocking of the movement of the westerly wind in the middle and lower troposphere towards East China. This study examines results from a regional climate model (REMO) at the resolutions of 25 and 50 km for the period 1980–2012. The model is run using lateral boundary conditions from ERA-Interim (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts interim reanalysis). There are only a few differences between 25 and 50 km in land surface/vegetation characteristics, but the major differences in this region are due to the orography. Results show that the high-resolution simulation performance is poor in winter, when southwesterly wind prevails, whereas it performs well in summer, when the westerly wind is substantially weakened in southern China. In comparison to the ERA-Interim wind field, the high-resolution simulation overestimates the air flow over the Hengduan Mountains near the ground surface, which influences the transport of atmospheric water vapor in the downstream region, i.e., over southern China. Specifically, with the help of the overestimated southwesterly wind, the amount of atmospheric water vapor transported increases considerably perennially by up to 20% in southern China, while it decreases remarkably by more than 5% throughout the year in a large area of Central and North China. These features lead to excessive precipitation and underestimated cloud cover in southern China, which probably causes the overestimated 2-m temperature in southern China. Our study emphasizes that, in such high-resolution-model studies for East Asia, special attention should be paid to the near-surface winds over the Hengduan Mountains.
We thank anonymous reviewers for comments and suggestions that helped to improve the manuscript. We thank the ECMWF and CMA for providing the gridded data. We thank the Climate System Department at GERICS for the consultations that took place regarding the REMO model. The simulations were carried out at the German Climate Computing Center (DKRZ).
This work is supported by a project entitled “Relationships between glacier changes and atmospheric circulation in High Mountain Asia,” supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 41871053, 41371095, 91337218), the China Special Fund for Meteorological Research in the Public Interest (No. GYHY 201406008), project S1 (Diagnosis and Metrics in Climate Models) of the Collaborative Research Centre TRR 181 Energy Transfer in Atmosphere and Ocean program funded by the German Research Foundation, EC project PRIMAVERA under grant agreement no. 641727, and the state assignment of FASO Russia (theme Nos. 0149-2019-0015, 0149-2018-0014). This study was also funded by “the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions” (PAPD).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
- Borscheid P (2015) Temporal and spatial scaling impacts on extreme precipitation. Atmo Chem Phys 15:2157–2196Google Scholar
- Casanueva A et al (2015) Daily precipitation statistics in a EURO-CORDEX RCM ensemble: added value of raw and bias-corrected high-resolution simulations. Clim Dyn 31:1–19Google Scholar
- Dee DP, Uppala SM, Simmons AJ, Berrisford P, Poli P, Kobayashi S, Andrae U, Balmaseda MA, Balsamo G, Bauer P, Bechtold P, Beljaars ACM, van de Berg L, Bidlot J, Bormann N, Delsol C, Dragani R, Fuentes M, Geer AJ, Haimberger L, Healy SB, Hersbach H, Hólm EV, Isaksen L, Kållberg P, Köhler M, Matricardi M, McNally AP, Monge-Sanz BM, Morcrette JJ, Park BK, Peubey C, de Rosnay P, Tavolato C, Thépaut JN, Vitart F (2011) The ERA-interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system. Q J R Meteorol Soc 137:553–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hagemann S (2002) An improved land surface parameter dataset for global and regional climate models. Report 336, Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, HamburgGoogle Scholar
- Hagemann S, Botzet M, Dümenil L, Machenhauer B (1999) Derivation of global GCM boundary conditions from 1 km land use satellite data. Report 289, Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, HamburgGoogle Scholar
- Jacob D, Bärring L, Christensen OB, Christensen JH, de Castro M, Déqué M, Giorgi F, Hagemann S, Hirschi M, Jones R, Kjellström E, Lenderink G, Rockel B, Sánchez E, Schär C, Seneviratne SI, Somot S, van Ulden A, van den Hurk B (2007) An inter-comparison of regional climate models for Europe: model performance in present-day climate. Clim Chang 81:31–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Jacob D, Elizalde A, Haensler A, Hagemann S, Kumar P, Podzun R, Rechid D, Remedio AR, Saeed F, Sieck K, Teichmann C, Wilhelm C (2012) Assessing the transferability of the regional climate model REMO to different coordinated regional climate downscaling experiment (CORDEX) regions. Atmosphere 3:181–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Jacob D, Petersen J, Eggert B, Alias A, Christensen OB, Bouwer LM, Braun A, Colette A, Déqué M, Georgievski G, Georgopoulou E, Gobiet A, Menut L, Nikulin G, Haensler A, Hempelmann N, Jones C, Keuler K, Kovats S, Kröner N, Kotlarski S, Kriegsmann A, Martin E, van Meijgaard E, Moseley C, Pfeifer S, Preuschmann S, Radermacher C, Radtke K, Rechid D, Rounsevell M, Samuelsson P, Somot S, Soussana JF, Teichmann C, Valentini R, Vautard R, Weber B, Yiou P (2014) EURO-CORDEX: new high-resolution climate change projections for European impact research. Reg Environ Chang 14:563–578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Jacob D, Petersen J, Eggert B, Alias A, Christensen OB, Bouwer LM, Braun A, Colette A, Déqué M, Georgievski G, Georgopoulou E, Gobiet A, Menut L, Nikulin G, Haensler A, Hempelmann N, Jones C, Keuler K, Kovats S, Kröner N, Kotlarski S, Kriegsmann A, Martin E, van Meijgaard E, Moseley C, Pfeifer S, Preuschmann S, Radermacher C, Radtke K, Rechid D, Rounsevell M, Samuelsson P, Somot S, Soussana JF, Teichmann C, Valentini R, Vautard R, Weber B, Yiou P (2013) EURO-CORDEX: new high-resolution climate change projections for European impact research. Reg Environ Chang 14:563–578. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-013-0499-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Koldunov NV, Kumar P, Rasmussen R, Ramanathan AL, Nesje A, Engelhardt M, Tewari M, Haensler A, Jacob D (2016) Identifying climate change information needs for the Himalayan region: results from the GLACINDIA stakeholder workshop and training program. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 97:ES37–ES40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Majewski D (1991) The Europa-Modell of the Deutscher Wetterdienst. In: ECMWF seminar on numerical methods in atmospheric models, pp 147–191Google Scholar
- Prein AF et al. (2016) Precipitation in the EURO-CORDEX 0.11° and 0.44° simulations: high resolution, high benefits? Clim Dyn 46:383–412Google Scholar
- Redler R (2015) YAC 1.2. 0: an extendable coupling software for earth system modelling. Geosci Model DevGoogle Scholar
- Roeckner E et al (1996) The atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM-4: model description and simulation of present-day climate. Comptes Rendus Des Séances De La Société De Biologie Et De Ses Filiales 151:361–363Google Scholar
- Roeckner E et al. (2003) The atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM 5. Part I: model description Report 349, Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, HamburgGoogle Scholar
- Wang A, Zeng X (2012) Evaluation of multireanalysis products with in situ observations over the Tibetan Plateau. J Geophys Res Atmos 117Google Scholar
- Wang QW, Tan ZM (2014) Multi-scale topographic control of southwest vortex formation in Tibetan Plateau region in an idealized simulation. J Geophys Res Atmos 119Google Scholar
- Wu J, Gao X (2013) A gridded daily observation dataset over China region and comparison with the other datasets. Chin J Geophys 56:1102–1111Google Scholar
- Xu J et al (2018) On the role of horizontal resolution over the Tibetan Plateau in the REMO regional climate model. Clim Dyn:1–18Google Scholar
- Zhang Y, Gao H, Lammel G (2005) Simulation of monsoon seasonal variation of regional climate model REMO in East Asia (in Chinese). Climatic and Environmental Research 10:41–55Google Scholar
- Zhou TJ, Yu RC (2005) Atmospheric water vapor transport associated with typical anomalous summer rainfall patterns in China. J Geophys Res Atmos:110Google Scholar