Theoretical and Applied Climatology

, Volume 137, Issue 1–2, pp 941–961 | Cite as

Analysis of spatial and temporal evolution of hydrological and meteorological elements in Nenjiang River basin, China

  • Jiaqi Sun
  • Xiaojun Wang
  • Yongqiang Cao
  • Hongyan LiEmail author
  • Kwnasue Jung
Original Paper


This study examined hydrological and meteorological changes in China’s Nenjiang River Basin. Taking account of the physical processes in hydrology and meteorology revealed by the hydrological elements, we selected typical periods and sites for analysis on temperature (1951–2004), precipitation, and runoff data (1955–2005). Through some methods including improved cumulative curve method, the Sen slope estimation method, Mann-Kendall non-parametric test analysis, the Pettitt mutation point test and Spearman rank correlation test, and the spatiotemporal characteristics of hydrological and meteorological elements were evaluated. An innovative concept of the “centroid of precipitation” was proposed to analyze the spatial evolution tendency of precipitation. The results are concluded as follows: (1) the temperature began to show a rising trend during the 1960s and 1970s in Nenjiang River Basin in the twentieth century. The temperature had risen significantly by the 1990s. Furthermore, the temperature increased significantly at the coldest place and in the coldest month. (2) There was no significant trend change in the annual precipitation in the Nenjiang River Basin. However, monthly precipitation before the flood season (April) and after the flood season (October) exhibited a significant upward trend. The centroid of precipitation was concentrated in a compact spatial distribution in the main flood season but was dispersed relatively in the other months. (3) River runoff showed a downward trend year by year and exhibited a mutation in 1979. The spatial variation in runoff showed that the fluctuation of downstream runoff was greater than that in the upper reaches of the basin and that the runoff from the upstream to the downstream reaches gradually decreased. According to the M-K mutation point test, the Pettitt mutation point test, and the improved cumulative curve method, a mutation in annual runoff sequence occurred in 1979. These findings will be helpful for understanding evolution of hydrological changes and will be supportive for local water managers to deal with changing climate.



We are grateful to the National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2017YFC0403506), the CRSRI Open Research Program (CKWV2016392/KY), Young Top-Notch Talent Support Program of National High-level Talents Special Support Plan, Strategic Consulting Projects of Chinese Academy of Engineering (No. 2016-ZD-08-05-02), and China Water Resource Conservation and Protection Project (No. 126302001000150005) for providing financial support for this research. We are also thankful to anonymous reviewers and editors for their helpful comments and suggestions.


  1. Birtles AB (1978) Identification and separation of major base flow components from a stream hydrograph. Water Resour Res 14(5):791–803CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chao Q, Zhou B et al (2014) Development of IPCC climate change natural science cognition. Adv Clim Chang Res 10(1):7–13 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  3. Ding Y (2009) Climate change science, impact, adaptation and countermeasures in China.Beijing. Chin Environ Sci Press 2009:9 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  4. Ding Y, Rhen G et al (2007) Detection and estimation of climate change in China. Desert and oasis weather. (01):1–10 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  5. Eckhardt K (2008) A comparison of baseflow indices, which were calculated with seven different baseflow separation methods. J Hydrol 352(1):168–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Huang Z, Jing X (2005) Basic theory and application technology of hydrological and climate prediction. China WaterPower Press, Beijing, pp 197–298 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  7. Kendall MG (1975) Rank correlation methods, 4th edn. Charles Griffin, LondonGoogle Scholar
  8. Lehmann E (1975) Nonparametrics: statistical methods based on ranks (POD). Prentice-Hall: 1st edition. Springer (Berlin): Revised edition, 2006Google Scholar
  9. Li Y, Bao X et al (2016) Characteristics of runoff variation and the relationship of human activities in the upper reaches of Bailongjiang. Sci Technol Eng 16(27):88–93 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  10. Mann HB (1945) Nonparametric tests against trend. Econometrica 1945:245–259Google Scholar
  11. Medhaug I, Drange H (2016) Global and regional surface cooling in a warming climate: amulti-model analysis. Clim Dyn 46(11/12):3899–3920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Nafarzadegan AR, Ahani H, Singh VP, Kherad M (2013) Parametric and non-parametric trend of reference evapotranspiration and its key influencing climatic variables (case study: southern Iran). ECOPERSIA 1(2):123–144Google Scholar
  13. Pettitt AN (1979) A non-parametric approach to the change-point problem. Appl Stat 1979:126–135Google Scholar
  14. Qin D, Ding Y et al (2005) Assessment of climate and environment evolution in China(I):climate and environment change and future trend in China. Adv Clim Chang Res:4 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  15. Qiu LJ, Zheng FL, Yin RS (2011) Trend analysis of precipitation and streamflow during 1952-2008 in Yanhe River basin. J Soil Water Conserv 3:010Google Scholar
  16. Searcy JK,Hardison C (1960) Double-mass curves. U.S. Geocogical Survery Water Supply Paper.1541-B,1960Google Scholar
  17. Sen PK (1968) Estimates of the regression coefficient based on Kendall's tau. J Am Stat Assoc 39:1379–1389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Shadmani M, Marofi S, Roknian M (2012) Trend analysis in reference evapotranspiration using Mann-Kendall and Spearman’s rho tests in arid regions of Iran. Water Resour Manag 26(1):211–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sneyers R (1991) On the statistical analysis of series of observations 1991Google Scholar
  20. Taylor JM (1987) Kendal’s and Spearman’s correlation coefficients in the presence of a blocking variable. Biometrics 43:409–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Tonkaz T, Çetin M, Tülücü K (2007) The impact of water resources development projects on water vapor pressure trends in a semi-arid region, Turkey. Clim Chang 82(1):195–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Wang S (1987) The impact of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on climate. Geogr Res 6(4):89–105 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  23. Wang Y (2009) Analysis on the trend of air temperature, precipitation and runoff in the upper reach of the Yangtze River. Resour Sci 31(7):1142–1149 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  24. Wenwen (2013) IPCC released the fifth climate change assessment report: more than 95% human factors. Chin J Nat 35(5):352 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  25. Yang X, Zhong P, Xia K (2008) Analysis of the climate change tendency and abrupt climate change in Nansihu Basin over 1960–2005. J Glaciol Geocryol 30(5):801–806 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  26. Yin X (2012) The variation trend of hydrological and meteorological elements in Taoer River Basin. Northeast Water Conservancy and Hydropower 30(1):45–47 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  27. Yue S, Pilon P, Cavadias G (2002) Power of the Mann–Kendall and Spearman’s rho tests for detecting monotonic trends in hydrological series. J Hydrol 259(1):254–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Zhang G, Guo R (2008) The ecological hydrological function and its degradation mechanism and countermeasures in the middle and lower reaches of Nenjiang river. Resour Environ Arid Areas 22(01):122–128 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  29. Zhang X, Harvey KD, Hogg WD, Yuzyk TR (2001) Trends in Canadian streamflow. Water Resour Res 37(4):987–998CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jiaqi Sun
    • 1
  • Xiaojun Wang
    • 2
    • 3
  • Yongqiang Cao
    • 4
  • Hongyan Li
    • 5
    Email author
  • Kwnasue Jung
    • 6
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Groundwater Resources and Environment, Ministry of EducationJilin UniversityChangchun CityChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic EngineeringNanjing Hydraulic Research InstituteNanjingChina
  3. 3.Research Center for Climate Change, Ministry of Water ResourcesNanjing CityChina
  4. 4.School of Urban Planning and Environmental ScienceLiaoning Normal UniversityDalian CityChina
  5. 5.Key Laboratory of Groundwater Resources and Environment, Ministry of EducationJilin UniversityChangchun CityChina
  6. 6.Department of Civil EngineeringChungnam National UniversityYuseong-guSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations