Theoretical and Applied Climatology

, Volume 137, Issue 1–2, pp 341–352 | Cite as

A new approach in temporal-spatial reconstruction and synoptic analysis of cold waves in the northwest of Iran

  • Mehdi Aalijahan
  • Bromand SalahiEmail author
  • Yousef Ghavidel Rahimi
  • Manuchehr Farajzadeh Asl
Original Paper


The present paper intends to reconstruct temporal-spatial patterns of below − 15 °C cold waves in the northwest of Iran and carry out a synoptic analysis of the patterns of these cold waves. Carrying out research on this topic can assist researchers and the state authorities in solving problems of different spheres of society, such as agriculture, economics, public health, etc., since cold waves can affect health problems in society and frosts can inflict severe damages to the agricultural crops and thereby lead to serious economic losses. For the purpose of this paper, a data corpus related to a period of 142 years from 1871 to 2012 was obtained from the relevant twentieth-century data banks of NOAA. Having sorted out the relevant data, cold waves of − 15 °C as well as cold waves of below − 15 °C were identified in the first place. Then, the identified cold wave patterns were classified and synoptically analyzed. The results revealed that, at the sea level, high-pressure waves from Siberia, west and northern regions coupled with the atmospheric blockings and the northern airflow in the upper levels of the atmosphere, led to transition of cold waves from northern latitudes to the northwest regions of Iran, resulting in very intense and long-lasting cold waves.


Extreme temperature Temporal-spatial reconstruction Cold waves Northwest of Iran NOAA data 



The authors would like to thank Dr. Vali Mohammadi, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran, for his kind and valuable help in preparing the manuscript. Also, we would like to thank NOAA and Iranian Meteorological organization for letting us access to the data of upper atmosphere. Last but not least, the authors are very grateful to the anonymous referees for their encouragement, helpful suggestions, and constructive comments which resulted in this improved manuscript.


  1. Ahmadi M, Ghavidel-Rahimi Y (2011) Identification and analysis of low temperatures in the northwestern region of Iran using NTD method. J Earth Sci Res 2(6):77–94Google Scholar
  2. Alijani B (2002) Synoptic climatology. Samt publish. TehranGoogle Scholar
  3. Alijani B, Houshyar M (2008) Identification of synoptic patterns of severe colds in the northwest of Iran. Physical Geography Res Quarterly 65:1–16Google Scholar
  4. Ashcroft LC, Pezza AB, Simmonds I (2009) Cold events over southern Australia: synoptic climatology and hemispheric structure. J Clim 22(24):6679–6698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barnett AG, Hajat S, Gasparrini A, Rocklov J (2014) Cold and heat waves in the United States. Environ Res 112:218–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cassano EN, Lynch AH, Cassano JJ, Koslow MR (2005) Classification of synoptic patterns in the western Arctic associated with extreme events at Barrow, Alaska, USA. Clim Res 30(2):83Google Scholar
  7. Ceccherini G, Russo S, Ameztoy I, Romero CP, Carmona-Moreno C (2015) Magnitude and frequency of heat and cold waves in recent decades: the case of South America. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci Discuss 3:7379–7409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cony M, Hernandez E, Del-Teso T (2008) Influence of synoptic scale in the generation of extremely cold days in Europe. Atmósfera 21(4):389–401Google Scholar
  9. Coville FV (1920) The influence of cold in stimulating the growth of plants. P NATL ACAD SCI USA 6(7):434–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Datla S, Sharma S (2010) Variation of impact of cold temperature and snowfall and their interaction on traffic volume. TRANSPORT RES REC 2169: 107-115.
  11. Diaz H, Muranane M (2008) Climate extremes to society. Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  12. Domonkos P, Kysely J, Piotrowicz K, Petrovic P, Likso T (2003) Variability of extreme temperature events in south-central Europe during the 20th century and its relationship with large-scale circulation. Int J Climatol 23(9):987–1010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gaskin JW, Steiner C, Harris K, Das KC, Bibens B (2008) Effect of low-temperature pyrolysis conditions on biochar for agricultural use. T ASABE 51(6):2061–2069. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ghavidel-Rahimi Y (2009) Synoptic analysis of extreme temperatures in the northwest of Iran during the cold season, PhD thesis, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Physical Geography Department, Isfahan University, IranGoogle Scholar
  15. Ghavidel-Rahimi Y, Farajzadeh-Asl M, Motallbeiizadeh S (2016) Statistical and synoptic analysis of cold waves in the northwest region of Iran. J Appl Res Geographical Sci 16(40):29–46Google Scholar
  16. Hankes IE, Walsh JE (2011) Characteristics of extreme cold air masses over the North American sub-Arctic. J Geophys Res 116(D11):1–11. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Huynen MM, Martens P, Schram D, Weijenberg MP, Kunst AE (2001) The impact of heat waves and cold spells on mortality rates in the Dutch population. ENVIRON HEALTH PERSP 109(5):463–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Karimi S, Negaresh H, Tavousi T, Alijani B (2012) Synoptic analysis of waves in Iran’s subterranean regions. Case: cold drought, February-February 2004 Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province. Geography Development 10(29):55–76Google Scholar
  19. Kirch W, Menne B, Bertollini R (2005) Extreme weather events and public health responses. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, p 306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kysely J (2008) Influence of the persistence of circulation patterns on warm and cold temperature anomalies in Europe. Analysis over the 20th century. Glob Planet Chang 62:147–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lashkari H (2008) Synoptic analysis of cold wave 2003 in Iran. Geographical Res 40(66):1–18Google Scholar
  22. Luo D, Yao Y, Feldstein SB (2014) Regime transition of the North Atlantic Oscillation and the extreme cold event over Europe in January–February 2012. Mon Weather Rev 142(12):4735–4757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Masoudian A, Darand M (2011) Synoptic analysis of extreme temperatures in Iran. Geography Development 22:165–185Google Scholar
  24. Medvigy D, Walko RL, Avissar R (2012) Simulated links between deforestation and extreme cold events in South America. J Clim 25(11):3851–3866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Meehl GA et al (2000) An introduction to trends in extreme weather and climate events observations, socioeconomic impacts, terrestrial ecological impacts, and model projections. B AM METEOROL SOC 81: 413-416.<0413:AITTIE>2.3.CO;2
  26. Metz ND, Archambault HM, Srock AF, Galarneau JRTJ, Bosart LF (2013) A comparison of South American and African preferential pathways for extreme cold events. Mon Weather Rev 141(6):2066–2086CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mo D, Hou Y, Li J, Liu Y (2016) Study on the storm surges induced by cold waves in the Northern East China Sea. J MARINE SYST 160:26–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Montero JC, Miron IJ, Criado-Alvarez JJ, Linares C, Diaz J (2010) Mortality from cold waves in castile-La Mancha, Spain. Sci Total Environ 408:5768–5774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Parey S, Hoang TTH (2016) Changes in the distribution of cold waves in France in the middle and end of the 21st century with IPSL-CM5 and CNRM-CM5 models. CLIM DYNAM 47(93-4):879–893. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Park TW, Ho CH, Deng Y (2014) A synoptic and dynamical characterization of wave-train and blocking cold surge over East Asia. CLIM DYNAM 43(3–4):753–770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Parry ML, Carter TR, Konijn NT (Eds.) (2013) The impact of climatic variations on agriculture: volume 1: assessment in cool temperate and cold regions. Springer Science & Business MediaGoogle Scholar
  32. Peterson TC et al (2013) Monitoring and understanding changes in heat waves, cold waves, floods and droughts in the United States. B AM METEOROL SOC. 821-834.
  33. Piotrowicz K, Bielec-Bakowska Z, Domonkos P (2016) High atmospheric pressure and accompanying cold season weather types in Poland (1951–2010). Clim Res 67:165–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Prieto LR, Garcia R, Diaz J, Hernandez E, del Teso T (2002) NAO influence on the extreme winter temperature in Madrid (Spain). Ann Geophys 20:2077–2085CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Prieto L, Herrera RG, Díaz J, Hernández E, Del-Teso T (2004) Minimum extreme temperatures over peninsular Spain. Glob Planet Chang 44(1):59–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Radinovic D, Curic M (2012) Criteria for heat and cold wave duration indexes. Theor Appl Climatol 107:505–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Radinovic D, Curic M (2013) Measuring system of adverse weather phenomena. Disaster Advances 6(3):19–23Google Scholar
  38. Radinovic D, Curic M (2014) Measuring scales for daily temperature extremes, precipitation and wind velocity. Meteorol Appl 21:461–465. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Romanic D et al (2015) Long-term trends of the ‘Koshava’ wind during the period1949-2010. Int J Climatol 35(2):288–302. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ryoo SB, Kwon KB, Jhun JG (2005) Surface and upper-level features associated with wintertime cold surge outbreaks in South Korea. Adv Atmos Sci 22:509–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Simmonds I, Richter T (2000) Synoptic comparison of cold events in winter and summerin Melbourne and Perth. Theor Appl Climatol 67(1–2):19–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Smith J (2006) Dictionary of weather and climate, the facts on file publications. Market House Books Ltd, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  43. Takahashi H (1990) Migration of the cold air mass related to rain belt formation of the Chinese continent and atmospheric systems during the Baiu season (in apanese). Geographical Rev Japan Series A 64:10–24Google Scholar
  44. Tannehill IR (1928) Severe cold waves on the Texsas coast. Mon Weather Rev 56(2):41–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Unkasevic M, Tosic I (2015) Seasonal analysis of cold and heat waves in Serbia during the period 1949–2012. Theor Appl Climatol 120(1–2):29–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Van-Oldenborgh GJ, Haarsma R, De Vries H, Allen MR (2015) Cold extremes in North America vs. mild weather in Europe: the winter of 2013–14 in the context of a warming world. B AM METEOROL SOC 96(5):707–714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Vera CS, Vigliarolo PK, Berbery EH (2002) Cold season synoptic-scale waves over subtropical South America. Mon Weather Rev 130(3):684–699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Yi Z, Sperber K, Boyle J (1996) The climatology of East Asian winter monsoon and cold surges from 1979–1995 NCEP/NCAR reanalyses. PCMDI Report 38:1–6Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mehdi Aalijahan
    • 1
  • Bromand Salahi
    • 2
    Email author
  • Yousef Ghavidel Rahimi
    • 3
  • Manuchehr Farajzadeh Asl
    • 3
  1. 1.University of Mohaghegh ArdabiliArdabilIran
  2. 2.Department of Physical GeographyUniversity of Mohaghegh ArdabiliArdabilIran
  3. 3.Department of Physical GeographyTarbiat Modares UniversityTehranIran

Personalised recommendations