Evaluation of ten methods for estimating evaporation in a small high-elevation lake on the Tibetan Plateau
- 134 Downloads
To quantify lake evaporation and its variations in time, ten methods for estimating evaporation at a temporal resolution of 10 days over a small high-elevation lake in the Nam Co lake basin of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) were evaluated by using eddy covariance (EC) observation-based reference datasets. After examination of the consistency of the parameters used in the different methods, the ranking of the methods under different conditions are shown to be inconsistent. The Bowen ratios derived from meteorological data and EC observations are consistent, and it supports a ranking of energy-budget-based methods (including the Bowen ratio energy budget, Penman, Priestley-Taylor, Brutsaert-Stricker and DeBruin-Keijman methods) as the best when heat storage in the water can be estimated accurately. The elevation-dependent psychometric constant can explain the differences between the Priestley-Taylor and DeBruin-Keijman methods. The Dalton-type methods (Dalton and Ryan-Harleman methods) and radiation-based method (Jensen-Haise) all improve significantly after parameter optimization, with better performance by the former than the latter. The deBruin method yields the largest error due to the poor relationship between evaporation and the drying power of the air. The good performance of the Makkink method, with no significant differences before and after optimization, indicates the importance of solar radiation and air temperature in estimation of lake evaporation. The Makkink method was used for long-term evaporation estimation due to lack of water temperature observations in lakes on the TP. Lastly, long-term evaporation during the open-water period (April 6 to November 15 from 1979 to 2015) were obtained; the mean bias was only 6%. A decreasing-increasing trend in lake evaporation with a turning point in 2004 was noted, and this trend corresponds to the published decreasing-increasing trend in reference evapotranspiration on the Tibetan Plateau and can be explained by variations in related meteorological variables.
The authors would like to thank colleagues from the Nam Co station, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, for providing the lake-level change data from Nam Co Lake. We would also like to thank the anonymous referees and the editor for their constructive comments and suggestions.
This research has been funded by the Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA20060101), the Chinese Academy of Sciences (QYZDJ-SSW-DQC019), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41375009, 41661144043, 41522501, 41705005, 91637312), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation, the “Hundred Talent Program” (Weiqiang Ma), and the ESA MOST Dragon IV programme (Monitoring Water and Energy Cycles at Climate Scale in the Third Pole Environment (CLIMATE-TPE)).
- Allen RG, Pereira LS, Raes D, Smith M (1998) Crop evapotranspiration—guidelines for computing crop water requirements—FAO irrigation and drainage paper 56. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome ISBN 92-5-104219-5Google Scholar
- Bruin HARD, Keijman JQ (1979) The Priestley-Taylor evaporation model applied to a large, shallow lake in the Netherlands. J Appl Meteorol 18(7):898–903. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(1979)018<0898:TPTEMA>2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dalton J (1802) Experimental essays on the constitution of mixes gases: on the force of steam or vapor from water or other liquids in different temperatures, both in a Torricelli vacuum and in air; on evaporation; and on expansion of gases by heat, Manchester Lit. Phil Soc Mem Proc 5:536–602Google Scholar
- Downing JA, Prairie YT, Cole JJ, Duarte CM, Tranvik LJ, Striegl RG, McDowell WH, Kortelainen P, Caraco NF, Melack JM, Middelburg JJ (2006) The global abundance and size distribution of lakes, ponds, and impoundments. Limnol Oceanogr 51(5):2388–2397. https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2006.51.5.2388 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Finch J, A Calver (2008) Methods for the quantification of evaporation from lakes, for the World Meteorological Organization’s Commission for Hydrology, 1-41Google Scholar
- He J, K Yang (2011) China meteorological forcing dataset. Cold and arid regions science data center, Lanzhou, China, https://doi.org/10.392/westdc.002.2014.dbGoogle Scholar
- Hicks BB, Hess GD (1977) On the Bowen ratio and surface temperature at sea. J Phys Oceanogr 7(1):141–145. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0485(1977)007<0141:OTBRAS>2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Liu B, M Xu, M Henderson, W Gong (2004) A spatial analysis of pan evaporation trends in China, 1955–2000. J Geophys Res Atmos 109(D15), n/a-n/a, 123 https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JD004511
- Ma Y, Wang Y, Wu R, Hu Z, Yang K, Li M, Ma W, Zhong L, Sun F, Chen X, Zhu Z, Wang S, Ishikawa H (2009) Recent advances on the study of atmosphere-land interaction observations on the Tibetan Plateau. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 13(7):1103–1111. https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-13-1103-2009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- McGuinness JL, EF Bordne (1972) A comparison of lysimeter-derived potential evapotranspiration with computed values, Tech Bull, 1452, 71 pp., Afric. Res. Serv., U.S. Dept. of Agric., Washing-ton, D.CGoogle Scholar
- Oswald CJ, Rouse WR (2004) Thermal characteristics and energy balance of various-size Canadian shield lakes in the Mackenzie River basin. J Hydrometeorol 5(1):129–144. https://doi.org/10.1175/1525-7541(2004)005<0129:TCAEBO>2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Priestley CHB, Taylor RJ (1972) On the assessment of surface heat flux and evaporation using large-scale parameters. Mon Weather Rev 100(2):81–92. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1972)100<0081:otaosh>2.3.co;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Singh VP, Xu C-Y (1997) Evaluation and generalization of 13 mass-transfer equations for determining free water evaporation. Hydrol Process 11:311–323. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1085(19970315)11:3<311::AID-HYP446>3.0.CO;2-Y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wang W, Xing W, Shao Q, Yu Z, Peng S, Yang T, Yong B, Taylor J, Singh VP (2013) Changes in reference evapotranspiration across the Tibetan Plateau: observations and future projections based on statistical downscaling. J Geophys Res Atmos 118(10):4049–4068. https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrd.50393 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wen L, Lyu S, Kirillin G, Li Z, Zhao L (2016), Air-lake boundary layer and performance of a simple lake parameterization scheme over the Tibetan highlands, 2016, https://doi.org/10.3402/tellusa.v68.31091
- Xing W, Wang W, Shao Q, Yu Z, Yang T, Fu J (2016) Periodic fluctuation of reference evapotranspiration during the past five decades: does evaporation paradox really exist in China? Sci Rep 6:39503. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep39503 http://www.nature.com/articles/srep39503#supplementary-information CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Xu CY, Gong L, Jiang T, Chen D, Singh VP (2006), Analysis of spatial distribution and temporal trend of reference evapotranspiration and pan evaporation in Changjiang (Yangtze River) catchment. J Hydrol, 327(1):81–93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.11.029
- Zhou S, Kang S, Chen F, Joswiak DR (2013) Water balance observations reveal signigicant subsurface water seepage from Lake Nam Co, south-central Tibetan Plateau. J Hydrol. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.03.030