Theoretical and Applied Climatology

, Volume 135, Issue 3–4, pp 1559–1581 | Cite as

Aspect of ECMWF downscaled Regional Climate Modeling in simulating Indian summer monsoon rainfall and dependencies on lateral boundary conditions

  • Soumik Ghosh
  • R. BhatlaEmail author
  • R. K. Mall
  • Prashant K. Srivastava
  • A. K. Sahai
Original Paper


Climate model faces considerable difficulties in simulating the rainfall characteristics of southwest summer monsoon. In this study, the dynamical downscaling of European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast’s (ECMWF’s) ERA-Interim (EIN15) has been utilized for the simulation of Indian summer monsoon (ISM) through the Regional Climate Model version 4.3 (RegCM-4.3) over the South Asia Co-Ordinated Regional Climate Downscaling EXperiment (CORDEX) domain. The complexities of model simulation over a particular terrain are generally influenced by factors such as complex topography, coastal boundary, and lack of unbiased initial and lateral boundary conditions. In order to overcome some of these limitations, the RegCM-4.3 is employed for simulating the rainfall characteristics over the complex topographical conditions. For reliable rainfall simulation, implementations of numerous lower boundary conditions are forced in the RegCM-4.3 with specific horizontal grid resolution of 50 km over South Asia CORDEX domain. The analysis is considered for 30 years of climatological simulation of rainfall, outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), mean sea level pressure (MSLP), and wind with different vertical levels over the specified region. The dependency of model simulation with the forcing of EIN15 initial and lateral boundary conditions is used to understand the impact of simulated rainfall characteristics during different phases of summer monsoon. The results obtained from this study are used to evaluate the activity of initial conditions of zonal wind circulation speed, which causes an increase in the uncertainty of regional model output over the region under investigation. Further, the results showed that the EIN15 zonal wind circulation lacks sufficient speed over the specified region in a particular time, which was carried forward by the RegCM output and leads to a disrupted regional simulation in the climate model.


ECMWF Regional climate model Dynamical downscaling Summer monsoon Boundary condition CORDEX 



Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme


Bay of Bengal


Community Climate System Model version 3


Climate Local Model


Conditional model output


Co-Ordinated Regional Climate Downscaling EXperiment


Consortium for Small-Scale Modeling


Convective Parameterization Scheme


Empirical cumulative distribution function


Fifth-generation atmospheric GCM developed at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology


European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts




Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature


Global climate model




Initial condition and boundary condition


International Center for Theoretical Physics


India Meteorological Department


Indian summer monsoon


Indian summer monsoon rainfall


Low-level jet


Mesoscale model version 5


Max Planck Institute Ocean Model


Mean sea level pressure


National Center for Atmospheric Research


National Climate Data Center


National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration


OISST in weekly pattern


Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature


Outgoing Longwave Radiation




Regional Climate Model




Standard deviation


Sea Surface Temperature



This work is a part of a R&D project, funded by the Department of Science and Technology (DST), Ministry of Earth Science (MoES), Govt. of India. The authors wish to thank to The India Meteorology Department (IMD), NOAA/OAR/ESRL (Boulder, Colorado, USA;, and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) for providing gridded datasets. The authors seem their sincere gratitude to Prof. T.N. Krishnamurti, Florida State University, USA for his valuable comments on the manuscript to improve publication quality. Special thanks to the International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Italy, for providing the RegCM. The authors wish to extend their sincere gratitude to the Journal Editor and the Reviewers for their insightful comments on the paper.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Soumik Ghosh
    • 1
  • R. Bhatla
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • R. K. Mall
    • 2
    • 3
  • Prashant K. Srivastava
    • 2
    • 3
  • A. K. Sahai
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Geophysics, Institute of ScienceBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia
  2. 2.DST-Mahamana Centre of Excellence for Climate Change Research, Institute of Environment & Sustainable DevelopmentBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia
  3. 3.Institute of Environment and Sustainable DevelopmentBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia
  4. 4.Indian Institute of Tropical MeteorologyPuneIndia
  5. 5.India Meteorological DepartmentPuneIndia

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