The impact of urbanization during half a century on surface meteorology based on WRF model simulations over National Capital Region, India
- 317 Downloads
An estimated 50% of the global population lives in the urban areas, and this percentage is projected to reach around 69% by the year 2050 (World Urbanization Prospects 2009). There is a considerable growth of urban and built-up area during the recent decades over National Capital Region (NCR) of India (17-fold increase in the urban extent). The proposed study estimates the land use land cover changes particularly changes to urban class from other land use types such as croplands, shrubland, open areas, and water bodies and quantify these changes for a span of about five decades. Further, the impact of these land use/land cover changes is examined on spatial and temporal variations of meteorological parameters using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) Model. The urbanized areas appear to be one of the regions with highest changes in the values of the fluxes and temperatures where during daytime, the surface sensible heat flux values show a noticeable increase of 60–70 W m−2 which commensurate with increase in urbanization. Similarly, the nighttime LST and T2m show an increase of 3–5 and 2–3 K, respectively. The diurnal temperature range (DTR) of LST and surface temperature also shows a decrease of about 5 and 2–3 K, respectively, with increasing urbanization. Significant decrease in the magnitude of surface winds and relative humidity is also observed over the areas converted to urban form over a period of half a century. The impacts shown here have serious implications on human health, energy consumption, ventilation, and atmospheric pollution.
The authors thank NCEP/NCAR for FNL analysis dataset and WRF modeling system, Central Pollution control Board (CPCB), India, and Indian Meteorological Department India for meteorological data used in the present study.
Authors acknowledge High Performance Computational (HPC) facility provided under DST FIST ('Fund for Improvement of Science and Technology Infrastructure) 2014 Projects at Centre for Atmospheric Sciences, IIT Delhi.
- Anderson JR, Hardy EE, Roach JT, Witmer RE (1976) A land use and land cover classification system for use with remote sensor data. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 964: 28Google Scholar
- Emery C, Tai E, Yarwood G (2001) Enhanced meteorological modeling and performance evaluation for two Texas ozone episodes. Prepared for The Texas Natural Resource Conservation CommissionGoogle Scholar
- Fameli KM, Assimakopoulos VD, Kotroni V (2013) On the effect of land use change on the meteorological parameters above the Greater Athens Area. Advances in meteorology, climatology and atmospheric physics. Springer Atmospheric Sciences, Springer Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 73–78. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-29172-2_11 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- IMD weather bulletin 7th May 2012a :https://126.96.36.199/applications/meghdoot.nsf/45a3d33622dcac1565256d3c001cd7d3/7695f0fa32e4faf9652579fe002496b6/$FILE/allindia1_mor.pdf
- IMD weather bulletin 14th May 2012b https://188.8.131.52/applications/meghdoot.nsf/45a3d33622dcac1565256d3c001cd7d3/4f0995f0153e2d94652579f7002467d0/$FILE/allindia1_mor.pdf
- IPCC report 2015, https://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessmentreport/ar5/syr/AR5_SYR_FINAL_SPM.pdf
- Kain JS, Fritsch JM (1993) Convective parameterization for mesoscale models: the Kain-Fritcsh scheme, The representation of cumulus convection in numerical models. Am Meteorol Soc 165–170Google Scholar
- Lee SH, Kim SW, Angevine WM, Bianco L, McKeen SA, Senff CJ, Trainer M, Tucker SC, Zamora RJ (2011) Evaluation of urban surface parameterizations in the WRF model using measurements during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006 field campaign. Atmos Chem Phys 11:2127–2143. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-2127-2011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lo CP, Yang X (2002) Drivers of land-use/land-cover changes and dynamic modeling for the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area. Photogramm Eng Remote Sens 68(10):1073–1082Google Scholar
- Michalakes J, Dudhia J, Gill D, Henderson T, Klemp J, Skamarock W, Wang W (2004) The weather research and forecast model: software architecture and performance. Proceeding of the Eleventh ECMWF Workshop on the Use of High Performance Computing in Meteorology. Reading, U.K., Ed. George MozdzynskiGoogle Scholar
- Monin AS, Obukhov AM (1954) Basic laws of turbulent mixing in the surface layer of the atmosphere. Contrib Geophys Inst Slovak Acad Sci 24(151):163–187Google Scholar
- National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) (2014) ARW version 3 modeling system’s user’s guide. NCAR, BoulderGoogle Scholar
- Patwardhan S, Harit AK (2007) Workshop on climate change and health in South-East and East Asian countries, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaGoogle Scholar
- Shahabuddin G, Verma A, Kumar R (2004) Birds, forests and conservation: critical issues in Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, India. Newsl Ornithol 1(6):82–83Google Scholar
- World Urbanization Prospects The 2009 Theol Rev 2010Google Scholar