Theoretical and Applied Climatology

, Volume 129, Issue 3–4, pp 995–1001 | Cite as

Rainfall variability and seasonality in northern Bangladesh

  • Sheikh Hefzul BariEmail author
  • Md. Manjurul Hussain
  • Noor-E-Ashmaul Husna
Original Paper


This paper aimed at the analysis of rainfall seasonality and variability for the northern part of South-Asian country, Bangladesh. The coefficient of variability was used to determine the variability of rainfall. While rainfall seasonality index (SI ) and mean individual seasonality index (\( \overline{SI_i} \)) were used to identify seasonal contrast. We also applied Mann-Kendall trend test and sequential Mann-Kendall test to determine the trend in seasonality. The lowest variability was found for monsoon among the four seasons whereas winter has the highest variability. Observed variability has a decreasing tendency from the northwest region towards the northeast region. The mean individual seasonality index (0.815378 to 0.977228) indicates that rainfall in Bangladesh is “markedly seasonal with a long dry season.” It was found that the length of the dry period is lower at the northeastern part of northern Bangladesh. Trend analysis results show no significant change in the seasonality of rainfall in this region. Regression analysis of \( \overline{SI_i} \) and SI, and longitude and mean individual seasonality index show a significant linear correlation for this area.


Monsoon Rainfall Rainfall Seasonality Rainfall Variability Rainfall Time Series Seasonality Index 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Ahasan MN, Chowdhary MA, Quadir DA (2010) Variability and trends of summer monsoon rainfall over Bangladesh. J Hydrol Meteorol 7:1–17Google Scholar
  2. Ahmed R, Kim I-K (2003) Patterns of daily rainfall in Bangladesh during the summer monsoon season: case studies at three stations. Phys Geogr 24:295–318. doi: 10.2747/0272-3646.24.4.295 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ayoade JO (1970) The seasonal incidence of rainfall. Weather 25:414–418. doi: 10.1002/j.1477-8696.1970.tb04132.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bari SH, Rahman MTU, Hoque MA, Hussain MM (2016) Analysis of seasonal and annual rainfall trends in the northern region of Bangladesh. Atmos Res 176–177:148–158. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2016.02.008
  5. Barry RG, Perry AH (1973) Synoptic climatology; methods and applications. Methuen, LondonGoogle Scholar
  6. Cheung WH, Senay GB, Singh A (2008) Trends and spatial distribution of annual and seasonal rainfall in Ethiopia. Int J Climatol 28:1723–1734. doi: 10.1002/joc.1623 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hollander M, Wolfe DA, Chicken E (2014) Nonparametric statistical methods, 3rd edn. Wiley, USAGoogle Scholar
  8. Hossain MS, Roy K, Datta DK (2014) Spatial and temporal variability of rainfall over the south-west coast of Bangladesh. Climate 2:28. doi: 10.3390/cli2020028 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Livada I, Asimakopoulos DN (2005) Individual seasonality index of rainfall regimes in Greece. Clim Res 28:155–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lu A, He Y, Zhang Z, et al. (2004) Regional structure of global warming across China during the twentieth century. Clim Res 27:189–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Markham CG (1970) Seasonality of precipitation in the United States. Ann Assoc Am Geogr 60:593–597. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8306.1970.tb00743.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Nieuwolt S (1974) Seasonal rainfall distribution in Tanzania and its cartographic representation. Erdkunde. doi: 10.3112/erdkunde.1974.03.03 Google Scholar
  13. Rashid HE (1991) Geography of Bangladesh, 2nd edn. The University Press Limited, DhakaGoogle Scholar
  14. Shahid S (2010) Recent trends in the climate of Bangladesh. Clim Res 42:185–193. doi: 10.3354/cr00889 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Shahid S, Khairulmaini OS (2009) Spatio-temporal variability of rainfall over Bangladesh during the time period 1969–2003. Asia-Pac J Atmos Sci 45:375–389Google Scholar
  16. Shifteh Some’e B, Ezani A, Tabari H (2012) Spatiotemporal trends and change point of precipitation in Iran. Atmos Res 113:1–12. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2012.04.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Singh RB, Mal S (2014) Trends and variability of monsoon and other rainfall seasons in western Himalaya, India. Atmos Sci Lett 15:218–226. doi: 10.1002/asl2.494 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Sonali P, Kumar DN (2013) Review of trend detection methods and their application to detect temperature changes in India. J Hydrol 476:212–227. doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2012.10.034 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sumner G, Homar V, Ramis C (2001) Precipitation seasonality in eastern and southern coastal Spain. Int J Climatol 21:219–247. doi: 10.1002/joc.600 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Walsh RPD, Lawler DM (1981) Rainfall seasonality: description, spatial patterns and change through time. Weather 36:201–208. doi: 10.1002/j.1477-8696.1981.tb05400.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sheikh Hefzul Bari
    • 1
    Email author
  • Md. Manjurul Hussain
    • 2
  • Noor-E-Ashmaul Husna
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringLeading UniversitySylhetBangladesh
  2. 2.Institute of Water and Flood ManagementBangladesh University of Engineering and TechnologyDhakaBangladesh

Personalised recommendations