Advertisement

Theoretical and Applied Climatology

, Volume 127, Issue 1–2, pp 381–392 | Cite as

Impact of aerosols and cloud parameters on Indian summer monsoon rain at intraseasonal scale: a diagnostic study

  • Charu SinghEmail author
  • Litty Thomas
  • K. Kishore Kumar
Original Paper

Abstract

Aerosol and cloud parameters are known to be the influencing factors of the Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) variability at interannual and intraseasonal scales. In this study, we investigate the impact of remotely sensed aerosol optical depth and associated parameters (cloud fraction, cloud optical depth, cloud effective radii, cloud top pressure, and single-scattering albedo) on the individual active (break) spells of the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) season. Active and break spells are identified using satellite-derived data sets over the central Indian (CI) region. The present analysis suggests that the CI region is loaded with higher aerosol concentration and that rainfall is significantly negatively correlated with aerosol optical depth (significant at 1 % significance level) over CI. Contrary to the composite-based previous studies, it has been observed that the aerosol loading and cloud properties are considerably different during the individual active and break events. For break events, composite representation shows that aerosols are stacked along the Himalayan region while all individual break events do not portray this type of aerosol dispensation. It appears from the present analysis that the aerosols may impact the intraseasonal variability of ISMR through its indirect effect by altering the cloud properties and consequently the rainfall. Therefore, aerosols are supposed to be a regional contributor in affecting the intraseasonal variability of summer monsoon rainfall.

Keywords

Aerosol Optical Depth Indian Summer Monsoon Outgoing Longwave Radiation Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The present work is a part of TDP and the first author would like to thank IIRS for providing computational facility to carry out the present work. Analyses and visualisations used in this paper were produced with the Giovanni online data system, developed and maintained by the NASA GES DISC. The rainfall and other data sets are acquired from the web links http://gdata1.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/daac-bin/G3/gui.cgi?instance_id=TRMM_3B42_Daily, and http://gdata1.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/daac-bin/G3/gui.cgi?instance_id=MODIS_DAILY_L3. We also acknowledge the MODIS mission scientists and associated NASA personnel for the production of the data used in this research. SSA data set is procured from http://gdata1.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/daac-bin/G3/gui.cgi?instance_id=omi and authors thank the OMI International Science Team for the satellite data used in this study. The HYSPLIT model was used from the http://ready.arl.noaa.gov/HYSPLIT.php and the authors gratefully acknowledge the NOAA Air Resources Laboratory (ARL) for the provision of the HYSPLIT transport and dispersion model and/or READY website (http://www.ready.noaa.gov) used in this publication. We also thank anonymous reviewers and editor for their constructive comments.

Supplementary material

704_2015_1640_MOESM1_ESM.doc (389 kb)
Fig. S1 (DOC 389 kb)
704_2015_1640_MOESM2_ESM.doc (344 kb)
Fig. S2 (DOC 343 kb)

References

  1. Bollasina M, Nigam S (2009) Absorbing aerosols and pre-summer monsoon hydroclimate variability over the Indian subcontinent: the challenge in investigating links. Atmos Res 94(2):338–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bollasina M, Nigam S, Lau KM (2008) Absorbing aerosols and summer monsoon evolution over South Asia: an observational portrayal. J Clim 21:3221–3239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ganguly D, Rasch PJ, Wang H, Yoon J-H (2012) Climate response of the South Asian monsoon system to anthropogenic aerosols. J Geophys Res 117:D13209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Goswami BN, AjayaMohan RS (2001) Intraseasonal oscillations and interannual variability of the Indian summer monsoon. J Clim 14:1180–1198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Konwar M, Parekh A, Goswami BN (2012) Dynamics of east-west asymmetry of Indian summer monsoon rainfall trends in recent decades. Geophys Res Lett 39:L10708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Koren I, Altaratz O, Remer LA, Feingold G, Martins JV, Heiblum RH (2012) Aerosol-induced intensification of rain from the tropics to the mid-latitudes. Nat Geosci 5:118–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Krishnamurthy V, Shukla J (2007) Intraseasonal and seasonally persisting patterns of Indian monsoon rainfall. J Clim 20:3–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Krishnan R, Zhang C, Sugi M (2000) Dynamics of breaks in the Indian summer monsoon. J Atmos Sci 57:1354–1372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Lau WKM, Kim KM (2010) Fingerprinting the impacts of aerosols on long-term trends of the Indian summer monsoon regional rainfall. Geophys Res Lett 37:L16705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lau KM, Kim MK, Kim KM (2006) Asian summer monsoon anomalies induced by aerosol direct forcing: the role of the Tibetan Plateau. Clim Dyn 26:855–864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Magana V, Webster PJ (1996) Atmospheric circulations during active and break periods of the Asian monsoon; Preprints of the Eighth Conference on the Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System (GOALS). Amer. Meteorol. Soc, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  12. Mandke S, Sahai AK, Shinde MA, Joseph S, Chattopadhyay R (2007) Simulated changes in active/break spells during the Indian summer monsoon due to enhanced CO2 concentrations: assessment from selected coupled atmosphere–ocean global climate models. Int J Climatol 27:837–859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Manoj MG, Devara PCS, Safai PD, Goswami BN (2011) Absorbing aerosols facilitate transition of Indian monsoon breaks to active spells. Clim Dyn 37:2181–2198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Manoj MG, Devara PCS, Joseph S, Sahai AK (2012) Aerosol indirect effect during the aberrant Indian Summer Monsoon breaks of 2009. Atmos Environ 60:153–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Meehl GA, Julie MA, William DC (2008) Effects of black carbon aerosols on the Indian monsoon. J Clim 21:2869–2882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Muraleedharan PM, Mohankumar K, Sivakumar KU (2013) A study on the characteristics of temperature inversions in active and break phases of Indian summer monsoon. J Atmos Sol Terr Phys 93:11–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Niyogi D, Chang H, Chen F, Gu L, Kumar A, Menon S, Pielke RA Sr (2007) Potential impacts of aerosol–land–atmosphere interactions on the Indian monsoonal rainfall characteristics. Nat Hazards 42:345–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Nober FJ, Graf H-F, Rosenfeld D (2003) Sensitivity of the global circulation to the suppression of precipitation by anthropogenic aerosols. Glob Planet Chang 37(1-2):57–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Pandithurai G, Dipu S, Dani KK, Tiwari S, Bisht DS, Devara PCS, Pinker RT (2008) Aerosol radiative forcing during dust events over New Delhi India. J Geophys Res 113:D13209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Patra PK, Behera SK, Herman JR, Maksyutov S, Akimoto H, Yamagata T (2005) The Indian summer monsoon rainfall: interplay of coupled dynamics, radiation and cloud microphysics. Atmos Chem Phys 5:2181–2188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Rajeevan M, Bhate J, Kale JD, Lal B (2006) High resolution daily gridded rainfall data for the Indian region: analysis of break and active monsoon spells. Curr Sci 91:296–306Google Scholar
  22. Rajeevan M, Gadgil S, Bhate J (2010) Active and break spells of the Indian Summer Monsoon. J Earth Syst Sci 119(3):229–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ramage CS (1966) The summer atmospheric circulation over the Arabian Sea. J Atmos Sci 23:144–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ramanathan V, Chung C, Kim D, Bettge T, Buja L, Kiehl JT, Washington WM, Fu Q, Sikka DR, Wild M (2005) Atmospheric brown clouds: impact on South Asian climate and hydrologic cycle. Proc Natl Acad Sci 102:5326–5333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ravi Kiran V, Rajeevan M, Vijaya Bhaskara Rao S, Prabhakara Rao N (2009) Analysis of variations of cloud and aerosol properties associated with active and break spells of Indian summer monsoon using MODIS data. Geophys Res Lett 36:L09706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sikka DR, Gadgil S (1980) On the maximum cloud zone and the ITCZ over India longitude during the southwest monsoon. Mon Weather Rev 108:1840–1853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Singh C (2013) Characteristics of monsoon breaks and intraseasonal oscillations over central India during the last half century. Atmos Res 128:120–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sinha A, Berkelhammer M, Stott L, Mudelsee M, Cheng H, Biswas J (2011) The leading mode of Indian Summer Monsoon precipitation variability during the last millennium. Geophys Res Lett 38:L15703CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Uma KN, Kishore Kumar K, Narayana Rao T (2011) VHF radar observed characteristics of convectively generated gravity waves during wet and dry spells of Indian summer monsoon. J Atmos Sol Terr Phys 73:815–824CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Yasunari T (1979) Cloudiness fluctuation associated with the northern hemisphere summer monsoon. J Meteor Soc Jap 57:227–242Google Scholar
  31. Yasunari T (1980) A quasi-stationary appearance of 30 to 40 day period in the cloudiness fluctuations during the summer monsoon over India. J Meteor Soc Jap 58:225–229Google Scholar
  32. Yasunari T (1981) Structure of an Indian summer monsoon system with around 40-day period. J Meteor Soc Jap 59:336–354Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Indian Institute of Remote SensingISRODehradunIndia
  2. 2.Former Student of Indian Institute of Remote SensingISRODehradunIndia
  3. 3.Space Physics Laboratory, Vikram Sarabhai Space CentreISROTrivandrumIndia

Personalised recommendations