Theoretical and Applied Climatology

, Volume 122, Issue 3–4, pp 699–710 | Cite as

Distribution and long-term trends in various fog types over South Korea

  • Miloslav BeloridEmail author
  • Chong Bum Lee
  • Jea-Chul Kim
  • Tae-Hun Cheon
Original Paper


This study analyzed the spatial and temporal distributions of various fog types over South Korea. Six types of fogs were identified using a classification algorithm based on simple conceptual models of fog formation. The algorithm was applied to a 25-year record of meteorological observations. The most common fog types were radiation fog, prevailing at inland stations, and precipitation fog at coastal and island stations. Declining temporal trends in the frequency of fog events ranging between 2.1 and 10.9 fog events per decade were found at eight inland and two coastal stations. Long-term trends for each fog type show that the decrease in the frequency of fog events is mainly due to a decrease in the frequency of radiation fogs ranging between 1.1 and 8.5 fog events per decade. To identify the potential factors related to the decrease in radiation fog events, the temporal trends in annual mean nocturnal maximal cooling rates and annual mean nocturnal specific humidity during nights with clear sky and clam winds were examined. The results show that the decrease in the frequency of radiation fog events is associated mainly with the pattern of urbanization occurring during the past two decades.


Island Station Urban Heat Island Effect Calm Wind Korean Meteorological Administration Cloud Base Lowering 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors wish to thank Robert Tardif at the Department of Atmospheric Science, University of Washington and Jeffrey Scott Owen at the Department of Environmental Science, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies for their suggestions and comments.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Miloslav Belorid
    • 1
    Email author
  • Chong Bum Lee
    • 1
  • Jea-Chul Kim
    • 1
  • Tae-Hun Cheon
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Science, College of Natural SciencesKangwon National UniversityChuncheonSouth Korea

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