Theoretical and Applied Climatology

, Volume 119, Issue 3–4, pp 481–491 | Cite as

Changes in the frequency of extreme temperature records for Toronto, Ontario, Canada

  • Shannon M. J. Allen
  • William A. GoughEmail author
  • Tanzina Mohsin
Original Paper


Temperature extremes in Toronto, Ontario, Canada are examined using an under-utilized approach. The frequency of temperature extreme records per year is examined for the period of 1971 to 2000. Consistent with other published metrics, record extreme cold temperatures is decreasing at five weather observing stations in the Greater Toronto Area. This was confirmed using three different statistical tests indicating the change signal was stronger for weather stations on the fringe of the urban area suggesting that expanding urbanization was a major factor in this net change. However, this was not found to be the case for record extreme warm temperatures where increasing trends were not statistically significant. The effects of the Mt. Pinatubo eruption in 1991 were detected in both the minimum and maximum temperatures records.


Urban Heat Island Daily Minimum Temperature Cold Night Great Toronto Area Pinatubo Eruption 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shannon M. J. Allen
    • 1
  • William A. Gough
    • 2
    Email author
  • Tanzina Mohsin
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of GeographyUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Department of Physical and Environmental SciencesUniversity of Toronto ScarboroughScarboroughCanada

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