Theoretical and Applied Climatology

, Volume 115, Issue 3–4, pp 531–540 | Cite as

Spatial patterns and temporal trends of precipitation in Iran

  • Tayeb RazieiEmail author
  • Jamal Daryabari
  • Isabella Bordi
  • Luis S. Pereira
Original Paper


Spatial patterns of monthly, seasonal and annual precipitation over Iran and the corresponding long-term trends for the period 1951–2009 are investigated using the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre gridded dataset. Results suggest that the spatial patterns of annual, winter and spring precipitation and the associated coefficients of variation reflect the role of orography and latitudinal extent between central-southern arid and semi-arid regions and northern and western mountainous areas. It is also shown that precipitation occurrence is almost regularly distributed within the year in northern areas while it is more concentrated in a few months in southern Iran. The spatial distribution of Mann–Kendal trend test (Z statistics) for annual precipitation showed downward trend in north-western and south-eastern Iran, whereas western, central and north-eastern exhibited upward trend, though not statistically significant in most regions. Results for winter and autumn revealed upward trend in most parts of the country, with the exception of north-western and south-eastern where a downward trend is observed; in spring and summer, a downward trend seems to prevail in most of Iran. However, for all seasons the areas where the detected trend is statistically significant are limited to a few spot regions. The overall results suggest that the precipitation is decreasing in spring and summer and increasing in autumn and winter in most of Iran, i.e. less precipitation during the warm season with a consequent intensification of seasonality and dryness of the country. However, since the detected trends are often not statistically significant, any stringent conclusion cannot be done on the future tendencies.


Precipitation Occurrence Global Precipitation Climatology Centre Significant Downward Trend Precipitation Concentration Index Western Mountainous Area 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The GPCC data were freely provided by the Deutscher Wetterdienst through their Web site


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tayeb Raziei
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  • Jamal Daryabari
    • 2
  • Isabella Bordi
    • 3
  • Luis S. Pereira
    • 4
  1. 1.Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research Institute (SCWMRI)TehranIran
  2. 2.Department of GeographyAzad University of SemnanSemnanIran
  3. 3.Department of PhysicsSapienza University of RomeRomeItaly
  4. 4.CEER-Biosystems Engineering, Institute of AgronomyTechnical University of LisbonLisbonPortugal

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