The global signature of the ENSO and SST-like fields
The El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-like variability of various parameters and indices (e.g. sea surface temperature (SST)) is explored, by employing the last six decades of data on a global scale. We found that the ENSO signal in the SST field extends over tropics and subtropics, becoming maximum around 30° N and 30° S. The pronounced ENSO signal in the SST is observed over the southern tropics and subtropics. Additionally, the investigation of regional links between the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and SST revealed a new regional link, which extends in the tropical southern Pacific Ocean, where the effects of a long-lived pattern of SST are taking place. Furthermore, very strong SST-like surface temperature behaviour is observed over the equatorial Indian Ocean, being a new input to the assessment of “dangerous anthropogenic interference”. The above-mentioned findings could be employed to the advanced modelling development to improve climate change projections.