Urban air-quality assessment and source apportionment studies for Bhubaneshwar, Odisha
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Acid- and water-soluble component of suspended particulate matter was studied from January 2009 to December 2009 at Bhubaneshwar, an urban coastal location of eastern India, by high-volume sampler, environmental dust monitor using GRIMM®, and scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. The water-soluble components accounted for 30–45 % of the total suspended particulate matter, and the major elements were observed to be ammonium and nitrate as the cationic and anionic species, respectively. The acid-soluble component like copper, nickel, cobalt, iron, and lead accounted for 5–15 % of the total particulate matter concentration. The composition of particulate matter shows a clear seasonal variation in relation to wind speed, wind direction, and trajectories of the air mass movement. The GRIMM spectrometer analysis shows higher concentration of fine particulate matter. Source apportionment and enrichment factor analysis indicated that except sodium and chloride, all other elements have emerged from different sources such as crustal as well as anthropogenic.
KeywordsSuspended Particulate Matter Biomass Burning Crustal Source Total Suspended Particulate Matter Alkaline Component
The authors are thankful to the Director, Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology (IMMT-CSIR) and the Head, Environment and Sustainability Department (IMMT-CSIR) for their encouragement. Financial support by ISRO-GBP is gratefully acknowledged. The authors gratefully acknowledge the NOAA Air Resources Laboratory (ARL) for the provision of the HYSPLIT transport and dispersion model and/or READY website (http://www.arl.noaa.gov/ready.php) used in this publication. The authors highly acknowledge the anonymous reviewer for his valuable suggestions, on the basis of which the manuscript finally came to this stage.
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