Advertisement

Theoretical and Applied Climatology

, Volume 108, Issue 1–2, pp 207–216 | Cite as

Spatial and temporal characteristics of minimum temperature in winter in China during 1961–2010 from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis

  • Shuhong Wu
  • Aigang Lu
  • Longqing LiEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

Based on the surface 2 m monthly minimum temperature from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis dataset, the spatial and temporal characteristics of winter minimum temperature during 1961–2010 have been analyzed in China. Results showed that the minimum temperature in China has a significant increasing rate of 0.25° per decade calculated by the Mann–Kendall statistical test, which is consistent with the global warming trend. Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis reveals that there are three main patterns that can explain more than 57.6% of the total variance of the winter minimum temperature. The EOF1, EOF2, and EOF3 account for 34.8%, 13.5%, and 13.5% of the total inter-annual variance, respectively. The EOF1, EOF2, and EOF3 patterns are synchronous in northern China, central China, and on the Tibetan Plateau. There exist a decrease trend in the corresponding time coefficients of EOF1 and EOF2 and an increase trend in that of EOF3 since the 1960s. Both the corresponding time coefficients of EOF1 and EOF2 have significant positive correlations with the 500 hPa geopotential heights of the Arctic region and negative correlations in the regions lower than 40°N, while a significant positive correlation is found between the corresponding time coefficients of EOF3 and 500 hPa geopotential heights in the low latitudes. This suggests that rapid warming occurs in northern China and on the Tibetan Plateau, while the weakest trend locates in southeast China. Thus, warming in winter is more pronounced at higher altitudes and latitudes. These patterns are tightly connected with the atmospheric circulation.

Keywords

Tibetan Plateau Minimum Temperature Empirical Orthogonal Function Sichuan Basin East Asian Winter Monsoon 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The work was supported by the Chinese National Natural Science Foundation (41171061), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (NO.1240711), the joint Project for Universities in Beijing City supported by Beijing City and the Open Found of Key Laboratory of Cryosphere and Environment, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences (No.SKLCS2010-09).

References

  1. Ding YH et al (2007) Detection, causes and projection of climate change over China: an overview of recent progress. Advan Atmospheric Sci 24(6):954–971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Easterling DR et al (1997) Maximum and minimum temperature trends for the globe. Science 277(5324):364–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Gong DY, Wang SW (2003) Influence of Arctic Oscillation on winter climate over China. J Geogr Sci 13(2):208–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Gong DY et al (2001) East Asian winter monsoon and Arctic Oscillation. Geophys Res Lett 28(10):2073–2076CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. He YQ et al (2005) Seasonal variation in the regional structure of warming across China in the past half century. Clim Res 28(3):213–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. IPCC (2007) Summary for Policymakers of Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  7. Jin HJ et al (2000) Permafrost and climatic change in China. Glob Planet Chang 26(4):387–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Jones PD et al (2008) Urbanization effects in large-scale temperature records, with an emphasis on China. J Geophys Res-Atmospheres 113(D16):D16122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kalnay E, Cai M (2003) Impact of urbanization and land-use change on climate. Nature 423(6939):528–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kalnay E et al (1996) The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 77(3):437–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kang SC et al (2010) Review of climate and cryospheric change in the Tibetan Plateau. Environment Res Lett 5(1):015101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kistler R et al (2001) The NCEP-NCAR 50-year reanalysis: monthly means CD-ROM and documentation. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 82(2):247–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Li JP, Wang XL (2003) A modified zonal index and its physical sense. Geophys Res Lett 30(12):1632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Liu BH et al (2004) Taking China's temperature: daily range, warming trends, and regional variations, 1955–2000. J Climat 17(22):4453–4462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lu AG et al (2004) Regional structure of global warming across China during the twentieth century. Climat Res 27(3):189–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lu AG et al (2010) Altitude effects of climatic variation on Tibetan Plateau and its vicinities. J Earth Sci 21(2):189–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Niu F et al (2010) Increase of wintertime fog in China: potential impacts of weakening of the Eastern Asian monsoon circulation and increasing aerosol loading. J Geophys Res-Atmospheres 115:D00K20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Qian WH, Lin X (2004) Regional trends in recent temperature indices in China. Climat Res 27(2):119–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Qian W, Qin A (2006) Spatial–temporal characteristics of temperature variation in China. Meteorol Atmospheric Phys 93(1–2):1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ren GY et al (2008) Urbanization effects on observed surface air temperature trends in north China. J Climat 21(6):1333–1348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sen PK (1968) Estimates of regression coefficient based on Kendall's tau. J Am Stat Assoc 63:1379–1389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Vose RS et al (2005) Maximum and minimum temperature trends for the globe: an update through 2004. Geophys Res Lett 32(23):L23822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Wang SW, Gong DY (2000) Enhancement of the warming trend in China. Geophys Res Lett 27(16):2581–2584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Xiao CD et al (2008) Progress on observation of cryospheric components and climate-related studies in China. Advan Atmospher Sci 25(2):164–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. You QL et al (2008) Relationship between trends in temperature extremes and elevation in the eastern and central Tibetan Plateau, 1961–2005. Geophys Res Lett 35(4):L04704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. You QL et al (2010) Relationship between temperature trend magnitude, elevation and mean temperature in the Tibetan Plateau from homogenized surface stations and reanalysis data. Glob Planet Change 71(1–2):124–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. You QL et al (2011) Changes in daily climate extremes in China and their connection to the large scale atmospheric circulation during 1961–2003. Clim Dyn. doi: 10.1007/s00382-009-0735-0(36),2399-2417
  28. Zhai PM, Pan XH (2003) Trends in temperature extremes during 1951–1999 in China. Geophys Res Lett 30(17)Google Scholar
  29. Zhai PM et al (1999) Chances of climate extremes in China. Clim Chang 42(1):203–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Natural ConservationBeijing Forestry UniversityBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.College of Chemistry and Life SciencesWeinan Normal UniversityWeinanPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.China Space Civil and Building Engineering Design and Research Institute (Group)BeijingPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations