Advertisement

Theoretical and Applied Climatology

, Volume 91, Issue 1–4, pp 245–258 | Cite as

Numerical estimation of the effective albedo of an urban canyon

  • K. Fortuniak
Article

Summary

The paper focuses on the absorption of shortwave radiation in an urban street canyon. To test the effective albedo of the canyon an analytic solution of the multiple reflection problem is applied. The infinitesimally long canyon is divided into slices and a matrix of view factors for the slices is defined. Incoming shortwave radiation includes direct and diffuse parts and shadowing effects are included in the analysis. The model is validated against Aida’s (1982) scale model data and measurements in a real canyon. The results demonstrate a rapid decrease of the effective albedo as the canyon aspect ratio (its height to width, H/W) are increased. It is also shown that diurnal changes of the effective albedo can be very complex depending on the particular combination of H/W ratio, surface reflectivity and canyon orientation.

Keywords

Surface Albedo Street Canyon Diffuse Radiation View Factor Direct Solar Radiation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aida, M 1982Urban albedo as a function of the urban structure – a model experiment (Part I)Bound-Layer Meteor23405413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aida, M, Gotoh, K 1982Urban albedo as a function of the urban structure – a two-dimensional numerical simulation (Part II)Bound-Layer Meteor23415424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arnfield, AJ 1976Urban reflection coefficients: the role of multiple reflection and spatial variations of surface materialsProc Assoc Am Geogr814Google Scholar
  4. Arnfield, AJ 1982An approach to the estimation of the surface radiative properties and radiation budgets of citiesPhys Geogr397122Google Scholar
  5. Arnfield, AJ 1989Validation of an estimation model for urban surface albedoPhys Geogr9361372Google Scholar
  6. Bozonnet, E, Belarbi, R, Allard, F 2005Modelling solar effects on the heat and mass transfer in a street canyon, a simplified approachSol Energy791024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brest, CL 1987Seasonal albedo of an urban/rural landscape from satellite observationsJ Climate Appl Meteor2611691187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chimklai, P, Hagishima, A, Tanimoto, J 2004A computer system to support albedo calculation in urban areasBuild Environ3912131221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Craig CD, Lowry WP (1972) Reflections on the urban albedo. Preprints, Conf. on the Urban Environment and Second Conf. on Biometeorology, Philadelphia, Amer Meteor Soc 159–164Google Scholar
  10. Davies, JA, Schertzer, W, Nunez, M 1975Estimating global solar radiationBound-Layer Meteor93352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fortuniak K (2000) Sky view factor and urban heat island intensity in Łódź. Abstracts 4th Conf Contemporary Topoclimatic Research, Warszawa, Poland, 27–30 September 2000: 16–17Google Scholar
  12. Fortuniak K (2002) Effective albedo of the urban canyon – model simulation considering infinite reflections between finite surfaces. Proc. 4th Symp. Urban Env., May 2002, Norfolk, Amer Meteor Soc, Boston: 145–146Google Scholar
  13. Grimmond, CSB, Potter, SK, Zutter, HN, Souch, C 2001Rapid methods to estimate sky-view factors applied to urban areasInt J Climatol21903913CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Harman, IN, Best, MJ, Belcher, SE 2004Radiative exchange in an urban street canyonBound-Layer Meteor110301316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Johnson, GT, Watson, ID 1984The determination of view-factors in urban canyonsJ Climate Appl Meteor23329335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kanda, M, Kawai, T, Nakagawa, K 2005A simple theoretical scheme for regular building arraysBound-Layer Meteor1147190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kondo, A, Ueno, M, Kaga, A, Yamaguchi, K 2001The influence of urban canopy configuration on urban albedoBound-Layer Meteor100225242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Masson, V 2000A physically-based scheme for the urban energy budget in atmospheric modelsBound-Layer Meteor94357397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Noilhan, J 1981A model for the net total radiation flux at the surfaces of a buildingBuild Environ16259266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Nunez, M, Oke, TR 1976Longwave radiative flux divergence and nocturnal cooling of the urban atmosphere: II Within an urban canyonBound-Layer Meteor10121135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Offerle, B, Grimmond, CSB, Oke, T 2003Parameterization of net all-wave radiation for urban areasJ Appl Meteor4211571173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Oke, TR 1982The energetic basis of the urban heat islandQuart J Roy Meteor Soc108124Google Scholar
  23. Pawlak W, Fortuniak K (2002) Estimation of the effective albedo of the urban canyon – comparison of the two different algorithms. Proc. Int. Conf. “Man and Climate in the 20th Century”, Wrocław, Poland, 13–15 June 2002: 72–73Google Scholar
  24. Pawlak, W, Fortuniak, K, Podstawczyńska, A 2005The influence of Urban canyon parameters on downward total solar radiation values – measurements and modelingDWD, Annalen der Meteorologie41200203Google Scholar
  25. Podstawczyńska A, Pawlak W (2003) Daily course of ultraviolet and total solar radiation in an urban canyon – Łódź case study. Proc. 5th Int. Conf. on Urban Climate, Łódź, Poland, 1–5 September 2003, 1: 275–278Google Scholar
  26. Sailor, DJ, Fan, H 2002Modeling the diurnal variability of effective albedo for citesAtmos Environ36713725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sievers, U, Zdunkowski, W 1985A numerical simulation scheme for the albedo of city street canyonsBound-Layer Meteor33245257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sparrow, EM, Cess, RD 1970Radiation Heat TransferThermal Science SeriesBrooks/Cole349Google Scholar
  29. Steyn, DG 1980The calculation of view factors from fish-eye lens photographsAtmos Ocean18254258Google Scholar
  30. Steyn, DG, Lyons, TJ 1985Comments on: the determination of view-factors in urban canyons”J Climate Appl Meteor24383385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Terjung, WH, Louie, SS-F 1973Solar radiation and the urban heat islandAnn Assoc Amer Geogr63181207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Tsangrassoulis, A, Santamouris, M 2003Numerical estimation of street canyon albedo consisting of vertical coated glazed facadesBuild Environ35527531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Verseghy, DL, Munro, DS 1989Sensitivity studies on the calculation of the radiation balance of urban surfaces: I. Shortwave radiationBound-Layer Meteor46309331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. White, JM, Eaton, FD, Auer, AH 1978The net radiation budget of the St. Louis Metropolitan AreaJ Appl Meteor17593599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Willmott, CJ 1981On the validation of modelsPhys Geogr2184194Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Fortuniak
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Meteorology and ClimatologyUniversity of ŁódźŁódźPoland

Personalised recommendations