Theoretical and Applied Climatology

, Volume 84, Issue 1–3, pp 91–101 | Cite as

Urban–rural contrasts of meteorological parameters in Łódź

  • K. Fortuniak
  • K. Kłysik
  • J. Wibig


Data from two automatic stations in Łódź (one urban and one rural) for the period 1997–2002 are analyzed to reveal urban–rural contrasts of such parameters as air temperature, relative humidity, water vapour pressure and wind speed. Under favourable weather conditions the highest temperature differences between the urban and rural station exceeds 8 °C. Relative humidity is lower in the town, sometimes by more than 40%. Water vapour pressure differences can be either positive (up to 5 hPa) or negative (up to −4 hPa). Wind speed at the urban station is on average lower by about 34% in night and 39% during daytime. Regression analysis shows that for rural winds lower than 1.13 m s−1 urban winds can be stronger than rural speeds. Attention has also been paid to singularities in the course of the analyzed parameters over 24 hour periods. It is shown that the typical course of the urban heat island intensity under favourable conditions is similar in all season. Four stages of this course have been distinguished. Wind speed differences also seem to change in a typical way. Case studies show that humidity contrasts, unlike temperature, can evolve in different ways under fine weather conditions. Types of relative humidity evolution are proposed.


Wind Speed Urban Heat Island Water Vapour Pressure Urban Station Rural Station 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Fortuniak
    • 1
  • K. Kłysik
    • 1
  • J. Wibig
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Meteorology and ClimatologyUniversity of ŁódźPoland

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