Theoretical and Applied Climatology

, Volume 84, Issue 1–3, pp 23–33 | Cite as

Progress in the scale modeling of urban climate: Review

  • M. Kanda
Article

Summary

This paper describes progress made in the scale modeling of urban climate. The studies reviewed are mainly indoor and outdoor experiments that use an array of urban-like flow obstacles or roughness elements such as cubes, blocks, and cylinders. Except for several important and unique studies, the many experiments that use a single obstacle, or those that use an array of elements to create a vegetation-like roughness are excluded from this review. Topics considered include turbulent flow, scalar dispersion, local transfer coefficient, radiative transfer, and the surface energy balance. More than 40 relevant studies are cited, and both significant developments and remaining problems are described. The future application of scale models to obtain a comprehensive understanding of urban climate is also examined, with the focus mainly upon the possibility of outdoor experiments.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adrain, RJ, Meinhart, CD, Tomkins, CD 2000Vortex organization in the outer region of the turbulent boundary layer.J Fluid Mech422154Google Scholar
  2. Aida, M 1982Urban albedo as a function of the urban structure – A model experiments.Bound-Layer Meteor23405413Google Scholar
  3. Aliaga, DA, Klein, DE, Lamb, JP 1993Heat transfer measurements on a ribbed surface at constant heat flux using infrared thermography.Exp Heat Transfer61734Google Scholar
  4. Aliaga, DA, Lamb, JP, Klein, DE 1994Convective heat transfer distributions over plates with square ribs from infrared thermography measurements.Int J Heat Mass Transfer37363374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arnfield, AJ 1982An approach to the estimation of the surface radiative properties and radiation budgets of cities.Physical Geography397122Google Scholar
  6. Arnfield, AJ 2003Two decades of urban climate research: a review of turbulence, exchanges of energy and water, and the urban heat island.Int J Climatol23126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baechlin, W, Theurer, W, Plate, EJ 1991Wind field and dispersion in a built-up area – A comparison between field measurements and wind tunnel data.Atmos Environ25A11351142Google Scholar
  8. Baik, JJ, Park, RS, Chun, HY, Kim, JJ 2000A laboratory model of urban street-canyon flows.J Appl Meteor3915921600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barlow, J, Belcher, SE 2002aA wind tunnel model for quantifying fluxes in the urban boundary layer.Bound-Layer Meteor104131150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barlow J, Belcher SE (2002b) The resistance network for transfer from street canyons. Proc. of 4th Symposium on the urban Environment, AMS, Norfolk, 113–114Google Scholar
  11. Bottema, M 1997Urban roughness modeling in relation to pollutant dispersion.Atmos Environ3130593075CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Castro, IP, Robins, AG 1977The flow around a surface-mounted cube in uniform and turbulent streams.J Fluid Mech79307335Google Scholar
  13. Caton, F, Britter, RE, Dalziel, S 2003Dispersion mechanism in a street canyon.Atmos Environ37693702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cheng, H, Castro, IP 2002Near wall flow over urban-like roughness.Bound-Layer Meteor104229259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cook NJ (1976) Data for wind tunnel simulation of the adaibatic atmospheric boundary layer. BRE Note 103/76, BRE, Garston, Watford, Herts., U.K.Google Scholar
  16. Counihan, J 1971Wind tunnel determination of the roughness length as a function of the fetch and the roughness density of three-dimensional roughness elements.Atmos Environ5637642Google Scholar
  17. Dabberdt, WF, Hoydysh, WG 1991Street canyon dispersion: sensitivity to block shape and entrainment.Atmos Environ2511431153Google Scholar
  18. Davidson, MJ, Mylne, KR, Jones, CD, Phillips, JC, Perkins, RJ, Fung, JCH, Hunt, JCR 1995Plume dispersion through large groups of obstacles – a field investigation.Atmos Environ2932453256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Davidson, MJ, Snyder, WH, Lawson, JRE, Hunt, JCR 1996Wind tunnel simulations of plume dispersion through groups of obstacles.Atmos Environ3037153731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hagishima A, Katayama T, Tanimoto J, Moritake T, Ezoe N (2001) Wind tunnel experiments on airflow characteristics around the buildings of rectangular blocks with two different heights. J Archit Plann Environ Eng, AIJ, 548 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  21. Hagishima A, Tanimot J, Narita K (2005) Review of experimental research on the convective heat transfer coefficient of urban surfaces. Bound-Layer Meteor (in print)Google Scholar
  22. Hall DJ, Macdonald R, Walker R, Spanton AM (1998) Measurement of dispersion within simulated urban arrays – a small scale wind tunnel study. BRE Client Report CR 244/98, Building Research EstablishmentGoogle Scholar
  23. Hanna, SR, Chang, JC 2001Use of the kit fox field data to analyze dense gas dispersion modeling issues.Atmos Environ3522312242Google Scholar
  24. Hoydysh, WG, Dabberdt, WF 1988Kinematics and dispersion characteristics of flows in asymmetric street canyons.Atmos Environ2226772689Google Scholar
  25. Hussain, M, Lee, BE 1980A wind tunnel study of the mean pressure forces acting on large groups of low-rise buildings.J Wind Eng and Indust Aerodyn6207225Google Scholar
  26. Iyengar, AKS, Farell, C 2001Experimental issues in atmospheric boundary layer simulations: roughness length and integral length scale determination.J Wind Eng and Indust Aerodyn8910591080Google Scholar
  27. Kaimal, JC, Finnigan, JJ 1994Atmospheric boundary layer flows – their structure and measurements.Oxford University PressU.K.289Google Scholar
  28. Kanda, M, Inagaki, A, Marcus, OZ, Raasch, S, Watanabe, T 2004aLES study of the energy imbalance problem with eddy covariance fluxes.Bound-Layer Meteor110381404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kanda, M, Moriwaki, R, Kasamatsu, F 2004bLarge eddy simulation of turbulent organized structure within and above explicitly resolved cubic arrays.Bound-Layer Meteor112343368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kanda, M, Kawai, T, Nakagawa, K 2005aSimple theoretical radiation scheme for regular building array.Bound-Layer Meteor1147190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kanda M, Kawai T, Kanega M, Moriwaki R, Narita K, Hagishima A (2005b) Simple energy balance model for regular building arrays. Bound-Layer Meteor (in print)Google Scholar
  32. Kastner-Klein, P, Fedorovich, E, Rotach, MW 2001A wind tunnel study of organized and turbulent air motions in urban street canyons.J Wind Eng and Indust Aerodyn89849861Google Scholar
  33. Koloseus HJ, Davidian J (1969) Free-surface instability correlations. Geological survey water-supply paper 1592-C, Prepared in cooperation with the Iowa Institute of hydraulic Research, C1–C71Google Scholar
  34. Kover-Panskus, A, Moulinneuf, L, Savory, E, Abdelqari, A, Sini, JF, Rosant, JM, Robins, A, Toy, N 2002A wind tunnel investigation of the influence of solar-induced wall-heating on the flow regime within a simulated urban street canyon.Water, Air and Soil Pollution: Focus2555571Google Scholar
  35. Kusaka, H, Kondo, H, Kikegawa, Y, Kimura, F 2001A simple single-layer urban canopy model for atmospheric models: comparison with multi-layer and slab models.Bound-Layer Meteor101329358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Liu, H, Liang, B, Zhu, F, Zhang, B, Sang, J 2003A laboratory model for the flow in urban street canyons induced by bottom heating.Advances in Atmos Sci20554564Google Scholar
  37. Lyons, TJ 1983Comments on canopy geometry and the nocturnal urban heat island: comparisons of scale model and filed observations.J Climatol395101Google Scholar
  38. McAdams, WH 1954Heat transmission.McGraw HillNew York249Google Scholar
  39. Macdonald, RW, Griffiths, RF, Cheah, SC 1997Field experiments of dispersion through regular arrays of cubic structures.Atmos Environ31783795Google Scholar
  40. Macdonald, RW, Griffiths, RF, Hall, DJ 1998aA comparison of results from scaled field and wind tunnel modeling of dispersion in arrays of obstacles.Atmos Environ3238453862Google Scholar
  41. Macdonald RW, Hall DJ, Walker S (1998b) Wind tunnel measurements of wind speed within simulated urban arrays. BRE Client Report CR 243/98, Building Research EstablishmentGoogle Scholar
  42. Macdonald, RW, Schofield, SC, Slawson, PR 2002Physical modeling of urban roughness using regular roughness elements.Water, Air and Soil Pollution: Focus2541554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Masson, V 2000A physically-based scheme for the urban energy budget in atmospheric models.Bound-Layer Meteor94357397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mavroidis, I, Griffiths, RF 2001Local characteristics of atmospheric dispersion within buildings arrays.Atmos Environ3529412954CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Meinders, ER, Van Der Meer, TH, Hanjalic, K 1998Local convective heat transfer from an array of wall-mounted cubes.Int J Heat Mass Transfer41335346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Meng, Y, Oikawa, S 1997A wind-tunnel study of the flow and diffusion within model urban canopies.J Jpn Soc Atmos Environ32136147(in Japanese)Google Scholar
  47. Moriwaki, R, Kanda, M 2004Seasonal and diurnal fluxes of radiation, heat, water vapor and CO2 over a suburban area.J Appl Meteor4317001710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Murakami, S, Hibi, K, Mochida, A 1990Three dimensional analysis of turbulent flow field around street blocks by means of large eddy simulation (part-1).J Archit Plann Environ EngAIJ 412110(in Japanese)Google Scholar
  49. Narita K (2003) Wind tunnel experiment on convective transfer coefficient in urban street canyon. 5th Int Conf Urban Climate Lots Poland: O21.2 (CD-ROM)Google Scholar
  50. Oke, TR 1981Canyon geometry and the nocturnal urban heat island: comparison of scale model and field observations.J Climatol1237254Google Scholar
  51. O’Loughlin, EM, Macdonald, EG 1964Some roughness concentration effects on boundary resistance.La Houille Blanche71964Google Scholar
  52. Osaka, H, Mochizuki, S 1987Streamwise vertical structure associated with the bursting phenomenon in the turbulent boundary layer over a d-type rough surface at low Reynolds number.Trans Japan Soc Mech Eng53371379(in Japanese)Google Scholar
  53. Petersen, RL 1997A wind tunnel evaluation of methods for estimating surface roughness length at industrial facilities.Atmos Environ314557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Rafailidis, S 1997Influence of building areal density and roof shape on the wind characteristics above a town.Bound-Layer Meteor85255271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Raupach, MR, Thom, AS, Edwards, I 1980A wind-tunnel study of turbulent flow close to regularly arrayed rough surfaces.Bound-Layer Meteor18373397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Roth, M 2000Review of atmospheric turbulence over cities.Quart J Roy Meteor Soc126941990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Swaid, H 1993The role of radiative-convective interaction in creating the microclimate of urban street canyons.Bound-Layer Meteor64231259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Spronken-Smith, RA, Oke, TR 1999Scale modelling of nocturnal cooling in urban parks.Bound-Layer Meteor93287312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Theurer, W, Baechlin, W, Plate, EJ 1992Model study of the development of boundary layers above urban areas.J Wind Eng and Indust Aerodyn41–44437448Google Scholar
  60. Uehara, K, Murakami, S, Oikawa, S, Wakamatsu, S 2000Wind tunnel experiments on how thermal stratification affects flow in and above urban street canyons.Atmos Environ3415531562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Uehara, K, Wakamatsu, S, Ooka, R 2003Studies on critical reynolds number indices for wind-tunnel experiments on flow within urban areas.Bound-Layer Meteor10753370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Veranth, JM, Pardyjak, ER, Seshadri, G 2003Vehicle-generated fugitive dust transport: analytic models and filed study.Atmos Environ3722952303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Voogt, JA, Oke, TR 1991Validation of an urban canyon radiation model for nocturnal long-wave fluxes.Bound-Layer Meteor54347361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wedding, JB, Lombardi, DJ, Cermak, JE 1977A wind tunnel study of gaseous pollutants in city street canyons.J Air Pollution Control Association27557566Google Scholar
  65. Yee, E, Biltoft, CA 2004Concentration measurements in a plume dispersing through a regular array of obstacles.Bound-Layer Meteor111363415CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Kanda
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of International Development EngineeringTokyo Institute of TechnologyMeguro-kuJapan

Personalised recommendations