Changes in extreme daily mean temperatures in summer in eastern China during 1955–2000
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Statistical characteristics of extremely low and high daily mean temperatures in summer (June, July and August) in eastern China have been investigated. The extremely low temperatures are defined as those days with temperatures not exceeding the 10th percentile with respect to the reference period of 1961–90; similarly the extremely high temperatures are defined as those exceeding the 90th percentile. There are well-defined spatial structures in trends of the frequency of extremely low temperatures as well as of high temperature extremes. In the north region (i.e. northern and northeastern China) the linear trends of frequency of low and high temperature extremes are −1.09 and +1.23 days/10 yr, respectively. For the southern portion of the study area, the trends are −1.32 and −2.32 days/10 yr. Taking the study area as a whole, the linear trends are −0.76 days/10 yr and +1.08 days/10 yr, respectively. The changes of frequency of extreme temperatures are mainly related to the shift in the temperature means. There is a dominant anticyclonic pattern in the lower- to middle troposphere over East Asia in association with warmer conditions in the north region. For the south region there is a jump-like change in the summer mean temperature and the extreme temperature events in around 1976. The large-scale northwestern Pacific subtropical high plays an important role in the jump-like changes of the temperature extremes.
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