Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics

, Volume 77, Issue 1–4, pp 75–83 | Cite as

Development of the water budget for three extra-tropicalcyclones with intense rainfall over Europe

  • B. Rockel
  • U. Karstens


 Three cyclones developing between 28 August and 6 September 1995 were studied with respect to the temporal evolution of their water budget components. The cyclones were simulated with the regional model REMO. Water budget values were determined from hourly model output for circle areas with 500 km radius around the pressure minimum. The results show a maximum liquid water path of about 0.12 kg m−2 and a maximum ice water path of 0.16 kg m−2. In the vertical cloud structure the medium cloud layer disappears at the end of the life cycle for all three cyclones. The release of precipitation onto the Baltic Sea drainage basin is different for each cyclone. It lies between 13 and 22 · 1012 kg. This is about 50% of the total precipitation in the whole area for the strongest cyclone and 65% for the others. The P — E (precipitation minus evaporation) is 15 · 1012 kg for two of the cyclones and 10 · 1012 kg for the third one.


Cyclone Water Budget Cloud Layer Water Path Liquid Water Path 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Rockel
    • 1
  • U. Karstens
    • 2
  1. 1. GKSS Forschungszentrum Geesthacht, GermanyDE
  2. 2. Max-Planck-Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena, GermanyDE

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