Advertisement

Influences of atmospheric ventilation on the composition of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere during the two primary modes of the South Asia high

  • Shuai Yang
  • Zhang Wei
  • Bin ChenEmail author
  • XiangDe Xu
Original Paper
  • 35 Downloads

Abstract

There are two key modes of the South Asia high (SAH) during the boreal summer: the Iranian Plateau (IP) and Tibetan Plateau (TP) modes. The anomalies of chemical constituents in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) region within the SAH area largely depend on this bimodality. To better understand the underlying mechanisms of this dependence, the ensemble of 30-day backward trajectories, initialized in the UTLS region within the SAH, was simulated by a Lagrangian model FLEXPART. The comparative diagnostic was performed from the perspective of atmospheric ventilation. The results show that vertical transport from the lower troposphere to the UTLS during the TP mode was very efficient, resulting in tropospheric air mass transported into the UTLS within a shorter timescale than during the IP mode. Furthermore, the effect of SAH isolation during the TP mode was stronger than during the IP mode. This stronger trapping is likely to force the tropospheric air mass to reside in the SAH area for a longer period of time. In addition, compared to the IP mode, near-surface air mass sources during the TP mode overlapped more with areas of severe air pollution (CO emissions). The above three factors associated with the processes of atmospheric ventilation, i.e., the efficiency of vertical transport, the strength of the SAH isolation, and the boundary layer sources, provide potential explanations as to why the anomalies of atmospheric constituents in the UTLS are different between the TP and the IP mode.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was jointly supported by the National Key Research and Development Program on Monitoring, Early Warning and Prevention of Major Natural Disaster (2018YFC1506001) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41475036 and 41130960). The authors are grateful for the following datasets made available to them: The ERA-Interim dataset can be obtained from http://www.ecmwf1.int; the observational dataset, from the Microwave Limb Sounder aboard the EOS-Aura spacecraft (http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/); and the CO anthropogenic emission data, from the EDGAR 3.2 Fast Track 2000 dataset (http://themasites.pbl.nl/tridion/en/themasites/edgar/index.html). We also thank two anonymous reviewers for suggestions and constructive comments on the manuscript.

References

  1. Bergman JW, Fierli F, Jensen EJ, Honomichl S, Pan LL (2013) Boundary layer sources for the Asian anticyclone: regional contributions to a vertical conduit. J Geophys Res Atmos 118:2560–2575.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrd.50142 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Berthet G, Esler JG, Haynes PH (2007) A Lagrangian perspective of the tropopause and the ventilation of the lowermost stratosphere. J Geophys Res 112:D18102.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2006jd008295 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bian J, Yan R, Chen H, Lü D, Massie S (2011) Formation of the summertime ozone valley over the Tibetan Plateau: The Asian summer monsoon and air column variations. Adv Atmos Sci 28:1318–1325.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-011-0174-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bourqui MS (2006) Stratosphere-troposphere exchange from the Lagrangian perspective: a case study and method sensitivities. Atmos Chem Phys 6:2651–2670.  https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-6-2651-2006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen B, Xu X, Shi X (2011) A study of the dynamic effect of the South Asian high on the upper troposphere water vapor abnormal distribution over the Asian monsoon region in boreal summer. Acta Meteorol Sinica 69:464–471 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  6. Chen B, Xu X-D, Yang S, Zhang W (2012a) On the origin and destination of atmospheric moisture and air mass over the Tibetan Plateau. Theor Appl Climatol 110:423–435.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-012-0641-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen B, Xu XD, Yang S, Zhao TL (2012b) Climatological perspectives of air transport from atmospheric boundary layer to tropopause layer over Asian monsoon regions during boreal summer inferred from Lagrangian approach. Atmos Chem Phys 12:5827–5839.  https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-5827-2012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dee DP et al (2011) The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system. Q J Roy Meteor Soc 137(656):553–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dessler AE, Sherwood SC (2004) Effect of convection on the summertime extratropical lower stratosphere. J Geophys Res 109:D23301.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2004jd005209 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Devasthale A, Fueglistaler S (2010) A climatological perspective of deep convection penetrating the TTL during the Indian summer monsoon from the AVHRR and MODIS instruments. Atmos Chem Phys 10:4573–4582.  https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-4573-2010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Forster FPM, Shine KP (1997) Radiative forcing and temperature trends from stratospheric ozone changes. J Geophys Res Atmos 102(D9):10841–10855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Forster C, Stohl A, Seibert P (2007) Parameterization of convective transport in a Lagrangian Particle dispersion model and its evaluation. J Appl Meteorol Climatol 46:403–422.  https://doi.org/10.1175/jam2470.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Froidevaux L et al (2008) Validation of aura microwave limb sounder stratospheric ozone measurements. J Geophys Res 113:D15S20.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2007jd008771 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fu R et al (2006) Short circuit of water vapor and polluted air to the global stratosphere by convective transport over the Tibetan Plateau. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:5664–5669.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0601584103 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fueglistaler S, Haynes PH (2005) Control of interannual and longer-term variability of stratospheric water vapor. J Geophys Res Atmos 110:D24108.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2005jd006019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fueglistaler S, Dessler AE, Dunkerton TJ, Folkins I, Fu Q, Mote PW (2009) Tropical tropopause layer. Rev Geophys 47:RG1004.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2008rg000267 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gao Y, Cuo L, Zhang Y (2014) Changes in moisture flux over the Tibetan Plateau during 1979–2011 and possible mechanisms. J Climate 27(5):1876–1893CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gettelman A, Hoor P, Pan LL, Randel WJ, Hegglin MI, Birner T (2011) The extratropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Rev Geophys 49:RG3003.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2011rg000355 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Guo D, Wang P, Zhou X, Liu Y, Li W (2012) Dynamic effects of the South Asian high on the ozone valley over the Tibetan Plateau. Acta Meteorol Sin 26:216–228.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13351-012-0207-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hirdman D, Burkhart JF, Sodemann H, Eckhardt S, Jefferson A, Quinn PK, Sharma S, Ström J, Stohl A (2010) Long-term trends of black carbon and sulphate aerosol in the Arctic: changes in atmospheric transport and source region emissions. Atmos Chem Phys 10(19):9351–9368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Holton JR, Haynes PH, McIntyre ME, Douglass AR, Rood RB, Pfister L (1995) Stratosphere-troposphere exchange. Rev Geophys 33:403–439.  https://doi.org/10.1029/95rg02097 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Homeyer CR, Bowman KP, Pan LL, Zondlo MA, Bresch JF (2011) Convective injection into stratospheric intrusions. J Geophys Res Atmos 116:D23304.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2011jd016724 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hoor P, Wernli H, Hegglin MI (2010) Transport timescales and tracer properties in the extratropical UTLS. Atmos Chem Phys Discuss 10:12953–12991.  https://doi.org/10.5194/acpd-10-12953-2010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hoskins BJ, Rodwell MJ (1995) A model of the Asian summer monsoon. Part I: The global scale. J Atmos Sci 52:1329–1340.  https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1995)052%3c1329:amotas%3e2.0.co;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Huang D-Q, Zhu J, Zhang Y-C, Huang Y, Kuang X-Y (2016) Assessment of summer monsoon precipitation derived from five reanalysis datasets over East Asia. Q J Roy Meteor Soc 142:108–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jackson DR, Driscoll SJ, Highwood EJ, Harries JE, Russell JM (1998) Troposphere to stratosphere transport at low latitudes as studied using HALOE observations of water vapour 1992–1997. Q J Roy Meteor Soc 124:169–192Google Scholar
  27. James P, Stohl A, Forster C, Eckhardt S, Seibert P, Frank A (2003) A 15-year climatology of stratosphere-troposphere exchange with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model: 1. Methodology and validation. J Geophys Res 108:8519.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2002jd002637 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. James R, Bonazzola M, Legras B, Surbled K, Fueglistaler S (2008) Water vapor transport and dehydration above convective outflow during Asian monsoon. Geophys Res Lett 35:L20810.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2008gl035441 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jensen EJ, Pfister L, Ueyama R, Bergman JW, Kinnison D (2015) Investigation of the transport processes controlling the geographic distribution of carbon monoxide at the tropical tropopause. J Geophys Res Atmos 120:2067.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2014jd022661 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jiang JH, Livesey NJ, Su H, Neary L, McConnell JC, Richards NAD (2007) Connecting surface emissions, convective uplifting, and long-range transport of carbon monoxide in the upper troposphere: new observations from the aura microwave limb sounder. Geophys Res Lett 34:18812.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2007gl030638 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Krebsbach M et al (2006) Seasonal cycles and variability of O3 and H2O in the UT/LMS during SPURT. Atmos Chem Phys 6:109–125.  https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-6-109-2006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Li Q et al (2005) Convective outflow of South Asian pollution: a global CTM simulation compared with EOS MLS observations. Geophys Res Lett 32:L14826.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2005gl022762 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Livesey NJ et al (2008) Validation of aura microwave limb sounder O3 and CO observations in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. J Geophys Res 113:D15S02.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2007jd008805 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Park M, Randel WJ, Gettelman A, Massie ST, Jiang JH (2007) Transport above the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone inferred from aura microwave limb sounder tracers. J Geophys Res 112:D16309.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2006jd008294 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Park M, Randel WJ, Emmons LK, Bernath PF, Walker KA, Boone CD (2008) Chemical isolation in the Asian monsoon anticyclone observed in atmospheric chemistry experiment (ACE-FTS) data. Atmos Chem Phys 8:757–764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ploeger F, Konopka P, Walker K, Riese M (2017) Quantifying pollution transport from the Asian monsoon anticyclone into the lower stratosphere. Atmos Chem Phys 17(11):7055–7066CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Randel WJ, Jensen EJ (2013) Physical processes in the tropical tropopause layer and their roles in a changing climate. Nat Geosci 6:169–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Randel WJ, Park M (2006) Deep convective influence on the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone and associated tracer variability observed with atmospheric infrared sounder (AIRS). J Geophys Res 111:D12314.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2005jd006490 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Randel WJ et al (2010) Asian monsoon transport of pollution to the stratosphere. Science 328:611–613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ryoo JM, Waliser DE, Fetzer EJ (2011) Trajectory analysis on the origin of air mass and moisture associated with atmospheric rivers over the west coast of the United States. Atmos Chem Phys Discuss 11(4):11109–11142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Schmale J, Schneider J, Ancellet G, Quennehen B, Stohl A, Sodemann H, Burkhart JF, Hamburger T, Arnold SR, Schwarzenboeck A (2011) Source identification and airborne chemical characterisation of aerosol pollution from long-range transport over Greenland during POLARCAT summer campaign 2008. Atmos Chem Phys 11(19):10097–10123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Shu S, He J, Liu Y, Wang Y, Cai Z, Liu X (2011) Relationships between low O3 and the longitudinal oscillation of the South Asia high over the Tibetan Plateau in summer clim. Environ Res 16:39–46.  https://doi.org/10.3878/j.issn.1006-9585.2011.01.04(in Chinese) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Stohl A, Forster C, Frank A, Seibert P, Wotawa G (2005) Technical note: The Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART version 6.2. Atmos Chem Phys 5:2461–2474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Vernier JP, Thomason LW, Kar J (2011) CALIPSO detection of an Asian tropopause aerosol layer. Geophys Res Lett 38:L07804.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2010gl046614 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Vogel B et al (2011) Transport pathways and signatures of mixing in the extratropical tropopause region derived from Lagrangian model simulations. J Geophys Res Atmos 116(D5):D05306Google Scholar
  46. Werner A, Volk CM, Ivanova EV, Wetter T, Schiller C, Schlager H, Konopka P (2010) Quantifying transport into the Arctic lowermost stratosphere. Atmos Chem Phys 10(23):11623–11639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wright JS, Fu R, Fueglistaler S, Liu YS, Zhang Y (2011) The influence of summertime convection over Southeast Asia on water vapor in the tropical stratosphere. J Geophys Res Atmos 116:D12302.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2010jd015416 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Yan RC, Bian JC, Fan QJ (2011) The impact of the South Asia high bimodality on the chemical composition of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Atmos Oceanic Sci Lett 4:229–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Zhang Q, Wu G, Qian Y (2002) The bimodality of the 100 hPa South Asia high and its relationship to the climate anomaly over East Asia in summer. J Meteorol Soc Jpn Ser II 80:733–744.  https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.80.733 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Severe WeatherChinese Academy of Meteorological SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.Laboratory of Cloud-Precipitation Physics and Severe Storms (LACS)Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.IIHR-Hydroscience and EngineeringThe University of IowaIowaUSA

Personalised recommendations