Advertisement

Increased flash flooding in Genoa Metropolitan Area: a combination of climate changes and soil consumption?

  • Fiorella Acquaotta
  • Francesco Faccini
  • Simona Fratianni
  • Guido Paliaga
  • Alessandro Sacchini
  • Vít Vilímek
Original Paper
  • 20 Downloads

Abstract

The Genoa Metropolitan Area (GMA) has been historically affected by floods for two reasons, namely meteorological conditions and the city’s geographical arrangement. In the past few years in GMA, an increase in flash floods has been registered; among the causes, climate variations have been analysed. In 2014, several floods took place. In some areas of the hinterland, the cumulative annual rainfall exceeded 4000 mm. This research analyses the rainfall statistics collected by Genoa University and Chiavari stations (GMA along the coast) and at Isoverde and Diga Giacopiane stations (hinterland of GMA). The analysis was based on the mean annual, seasonal and monthly rainfall and rainy days for the four stations and daily series for Genoa University. Furthermore, annual maximum data of hourly rainfall for the Pontecarrega station were analysed. The annual rainfall does not show any trend. The monthly analysis highlights significant decreases for rainfall and rainy days between spring and summer. Climate indices recorded on daily data at Genoa University station show a certain increase in rainfall intensity in recent years. Additionally, hourly rainfall at 1 and 3 h increased, and the series showed a change point in the 1990s. Furthermore, urban sprawl has continually increased until now, and its contribution has already been accepted. These facts can be related to the intensification of flash flood events measured in the last decade. Furthermore, historical data from several sources confirm an increase in the number of events and casualties. These conditions determine a clear need for monitoring potentially hazard situations.

References

  1. Acquaotta F, Fratianni S, Venema V (2016) Assessment of parallel precipitation measurements networks in Piedmont, Italy. Int J Climatol 36:3963–3974.  https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.4606 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Acquaotta F, Faccini F, Fratianni S et al (2018) Rainfall intensity in the Genoa Metropolitan Area (northern Mediterranean): secular variations and consequences. Weather.  https://doi.org/10.1002/wea.3208 Google Scholar
  3. Alexander L, Herold N (2016) ClimPACT2 indices. Available at: https://github.com/ARCCSS-extremes/climpact2. Accessed 11 July 2018
  4. Alexander LV, Zhang X, Peterson TC et al (2006) Global observed changes in daily climate extremes of temperature and precipitation. J Geophys Res 111:1–22.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JD006290 Google Scholar
  5. Baronetti A, Acquaotta F, Fratianni S (2018) Rainfall variability from a dense rain gauge network in North-West Italy. Clim Res, ISSN:0936-577X, 37 pp (in press) Google Scholar
  6. Barrera-Escoda A, Llasat MC (2015) The role of climatic factors in evolving flood patterns in a Mediterranean region (1301–2012). Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 19:465–483.  https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-19-465-2015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bartholy J, Pongracz R, Margitppatantyus A (2006) European cyclone track analysis based on Ecmwf era 40 data sets. Int J Climatol 26:1517–1527.  https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.1392 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carrega P (2016) The Côte d’Azur floods on 3 October 2015: heavy consequences linked to a composite risk. Pollut Atmos 228:1–26.  https://doi.org/10.4267/pollution-atmospherique.5475 Google Scholar
  9. Colombo N, Giaccone E, Paro L et al (2016) The recent transition from glacial to periglacial environment in a high altitude alpine basin (Sabbione Basin, North-Western Italian Alps). Preliminary outcomes from a multidisciplinary approach. Geogr Fis Din Quat 39:21–36Google Scholar
  10. Committee on Increasing National Resilience to Hazards and Disasters (2012) Disaster resilience: a national imperative. National Academies Press, Washington D.CGoogle Scholar
  11. De Graff JV, Anderson MG, Holcombe E (2015) Landslide risk reduction-complementary routes to learning. In: Lollino G, Manconi A, Guzzetti F, Culshaw M, Bobrowsky P, Luino F (eds) Proc IAEG2014 “Engineering Geology for Society and Territory”, vol. 5. Springer, Switzerland, pp 727–730Google Scholar
  12. Elleder L (2015) Historical changes in frequency of extreme floods in Prague. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 19:4307–4315.  https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-19-4307-2015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. European Commission (2013) The EU strategy on adaptation to climate change. https://ec.europa.eu/clima/sites/clima/files/docs/eu_strategy_en.pdf . Accessed 11 July 2018
  14. Eveno M, Planchon O, Oszawald J, Dubreil V, Quénol H (2016) Variabilite et changement climatique en France de 1951 à 2010: analyse au moyen de la classification de Koppen et des « types de climats annuels ». Association International de Climatologie 13:47–70Google Scholar
  15. Faccini F, Luino F, Sacchini A et al (2015) Geo-hydrological hazard and urban development in the Mediterranean area: an example from Genoa city (Italy). Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 15:2631–2652.  https://doi.org/10.5194/nhessd-3-2451-2015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Faccini F, Paliaga G, Piana P et al (2016) The Bisagno stream catchment (Genoa, Italy) and its major floods (1822, 1970 and 2014): geomorphic and land use variations in the last three centuries. Geomorphology 273:14–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Faccini F, Giostrella P, Melillo M et al (2017a) Heavy rains triggering flash floods in urban environment: a case from Chiavari (Genoa Metropolitan Area, Italy). Ital J Eng Geol Environ 1:51–66.  https://doi.org/10.4408/IJEGE.2017-01.S-05 Google Scholar
  18. Faccini F, Piana P, Sacchini A et al (2017b) Assessment of heavy rainfall triggered flash floods and landslides in the Sturla stream basin (Ligurian Apennines, northwestern Italy). Jokull J 67(2):44–74Google Scholar
  19. Flocchini G, Russo G, Sacchini A (1992) The precipitation on the maritime and continental slopes of central Ligurian watershed. Ann Geophys 10:140–144Google Scholar
  20. Fortin G, Acquaotta F, Fratianni S (2017) The evolution of temperature extremes in the Gaspè Peninsula, Quebec, Canada (1974–2013). Theor Appl Climatol 130(1–2):163–172.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-016-1859-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fratianni S, Terzago S, Acquaotta F, Faletto M, Garzena D, Prola C, secondo B (2015) How snow and its physical properties change in a changing climate alpine context? Engineering geology for society and territory—climate change and engineering geology, vol 1. Springer, Switzerland, pp 57–60.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-09300-0_11 Google Scholar
  22. Giaccone E, Colombo N, Acquaotta F et al (2015) Climate variations in a high altitude Alpine basin and their effects on a glacial environment (Italian Western Alps). Atmosfera 28(2):117–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gocic M, Shamshirband S, Razak Z et al (2016) Long-term precipitation analysis and estimation of precipitation concentration index using three support vector machine methods. Adv Meteorol 2016:1–11.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/7912357 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Guenzi D, Fratianni S, Boraso R et al (2017a) CondMerg: an open source implementation in R language of conditional merging for weather radars and rain gauges observations. Earth Sci Inform 10:127–135.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12145-016-0278-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Guenzi D, Acquaotta F, Garzena D et al (2017b) CoRain: a free and open source software for rain series comparison. Earth Sci Inform 2017:1–12.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12145-017-0301-y Google Scholar
  26. Hally A, Caumont O, Garrote L et al (2015) Hydrometeorological multimodel ensamble simulation of the 4-11-2011 flash flood event in Genoa, Italy in the framework of the DHRIM project. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 15:537–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jansà A, Alpert P, Arbogast P et al (2014) MEDEX: a general overview. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 14:1965–1984.  https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-14-1965-2014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Llasat MC, Ghabeli J, Turco MP (2014) Flash flood evolution in North Western Mediterranean. Atmos Res 149:230–243.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2014.05.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mestre O, Domonkos P, Picard F et al (2013) HOMER: a homogenization software—method and applications. Idojaras 117:47–67Google Scholar
  30. Norrant C, Douguédroit A (2006) Monthly and daily precipitation trends in the Mediterranean (1950–2000). Theor Appl Climatol 83:89–106.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-005-0163-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Peterson TC, Manton MJ (2008) Monitoring changes in climate extremes: a tale of international collaboration. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 89:1266–1271.  https://doi.org/10.1175/2008BAMS2501.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sacchini A, Ferraris F, Faccini F et al (2012) Environmental climatic maps of Liguria. J Maps 8(3):199–207.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17445647.2012.703901 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Saéz de Càmara E, Gangoiti G, Alonso L et al (2011) Water vapour accumulation mechanisms in the western Mediterranean Basin and the development of European extreme rain-falls. Tethys J Weather Clim West Mediterr 8:101–117Google Scholar
  34. Silvestro F, Rebora N, Giannoni F et al (2015) The flash flood of the Bisagno Creek on 9th October 2014: an “unfortunate” combination of spatial and temporal scales. J Hydrol 541:50–62.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2015.08.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Slobodan KT, Julius F, Sándor K et al (2016) Exploitation of documented historical floods for achieving better flood defense. Adv Meteorol 2016:1–9.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/2317252 Google Scholar
  36. Sneyers AR (1990) On statistical analysis of series of observations. Technical note no 143. World Meteorological Society, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  37. Terzago S, Fratianni S, Cremonini R (2013) Winter precipitation in western Italian alps (1926–2010): trends and connections with the North Atlantic/Arctic oscillation. Meteorol Atmos Phys 119:125–136.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00703-012-0231-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Trigo IF, Davies TD, Bigg GR (1999) Objective climatology of cyclones in the Mediterranean region. J Clim 12:1685–1696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Venema V, Mestre O, Aguilar E et al (2013) Benchmarking homogenization algorithms for monthly data. AIP Conf Proc 1552(8):1060–1065.  https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4819690 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zandonadi L, Acquaotta F, Fratianni S et al (2016) Changes in precipitation extremes in Brazil (Paraná River Basin). Theor Appl Climatol 123:741–756.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-015-1391-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dipartimento di Scienze della TerraUniversità di TorinoTurinItaly
  2. 2.Dipartimento di Scienze della TerraUniversità di GenovaGenoaItaly
  3. 3.Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerca per la Protezione IdrogeologicaTurinItaly
  4. 4.Department of Physical Geography and GeoecologyCharles UniversityPragueCzech Republic
  5. 5.Centro Interdipartimentale sui Rischi Naturali in Ambiente Montano e CollinareUniversità di TorinoTorinoItaly

Personalised recommendations