Modeling studies on the formation of Hurricane Helene: the impact of GPS dropwindsondes from the NAMMA 2006 field campaign
- 202 Downloads
Numerical simulations, using the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model in concert with GPS dropwindsondes released during the NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses 2006 Field Campaign, were conducted to provide additional insight on SAL-TC interaction. Using NCEP Final analysis datasets to initialize the WRF, a sensitivity test was performed on the assimilated (i.e., observation nudging) GPS dropwindsondes to understand the effects of individual variables (i.e., moisture, temperature, and winds) on the simulation and determine the extent of improvement when compared to available observations. The results suggested that GPS dropwindsonde temperature data provided the most significant difference in the simulated storm organization, storm strength, and synoptic environment, but all of the variables assimilated at the same time give a more representative mesoscale and synoptic picture.
KeywordsTropical Cyclone Global Forecast System West African Monsoon Tropical Depression Cape Verde Island
The critical reviews of anonymous reviewers and the editor were very helpful. We acknowledge the suppliers of datasets utilized in this research. We wish to express our appreciation to T. Eichler and G. Chen for the suggestions for the development of this research. This research was partly supported by the National Science Foundation Grant AGS-1209296 and NASA Grant NNX15AQ02A.
- Chou MD, Suarez MJ (1994) An efficient thermal infrared radiation parameterization for use in general circulation models. NASA Tech Memo 104606(3):85Google Scholar
- Diaz H, Carlson T, Prospero J (1976) A study of the structure and dynamics of the Saharan air layer over the northern equatorial Atlantic during BOMEX. Tech. Rep. ERL WMPO-32, National Hurricane and Experimental Meteorology Laboratory, NOAA, p 61Google Scholar
- Folmer M (2009) Validation of the WRF forecasts of the development of Hurricane Helene 2006. M.S. Thesis, Saint Louis University, p 124Google Scholar
- Janjic ZI (2001) Nonsingular implementation of the Mellor-Yamada Level 2.5 scheme in the NCEP meso model. National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Office Note #437Google Scholar