Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics

, Volume 126, Issue 3–4, pp 193–205 | Cite as

4D tomographic reconstruction of the tropospheric wet refractivity using the concept of virtual reference station, case study: northwest of Iran

  • Zohre AdaviEmail author
  • Masoud Mashhadi-Hossainali
Original Paper


Iran enjoys a variety of climatological conditions. Moreover, numerical weather prediction (NWP) models are not assimilated with the meteorological data in Iran, the country suffering from poor spatial and temporal resolution of radiosonde measurements. These facts make modeling of troposphere impossible using the measurements and NWP. On the other hand, the global positioning system (GPS) has been emerged as a valuable tool for modeling and remote sensing of Earth’s atmosphere. This research is the first attempt to address the tropospheric wet refractivity modeling by GPS measurements in Iran. Changes of topography in the study area are taken into account. As a leading work, virtual reference stations (VRS) are used to fix the rank deficiency of the problem. The model space resolution matrix is used to achieve the optimum spatial resolution of the tomographic model and the optimum number of VRS stations. The accuracy of the developed model (KNTU1) is investigated by deploying radiosonde measurements.


Global Position System Tomographic Reconstruction Virtual Station Global Position System Signal Global Position System Station 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



During this research, Mr. Akbar who is a member of the meteorological organization of Iran, kindly provided us valuable remarks. His cooperation is appreciated here. The meteorological organization of Iran provided the radiosonde profiles with dense pressure levels of the Tabriz station and the observation files of Synoptic stations in the northwestern part of the country for this research. This collaboration is also appreciated here. We are grateful to the National Cartographic Center (NCC) of Iran for providing the observation files of the Azerbaijan sub-network of the Iranian Permanent GPS Network too.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geodesy and Geomatics EngineeringK. N.Toosi University of TechnologyTehranIran

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