Atmospheric profiling with the UAS SUMO: a new perspective for the evaluation of fine-scale atmospheric models
- 458 Downloads
For the first time, unmanned aerial system measurements collected by the small unmanned meteorological observer (SUMO) are used to evaluate atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) parameterization schemes embedded in the Advanced Weather Research and Forecasting model (AR-WRF). Observation sites were located in the vicinity of the almost idealized shaped mountain Hofsjökull, Central Iceland. SUMO profiles provided temperature, relative humidity and wind data to maximum heights of 3 km above ground. Two cases are investigated, one with calm wind conditions and development of a convective ABL and one with moderate winds and gravity waves over Hofsjökull. For the high-resolution simulation with AR-WRF, three two-way nested domains are chosen with a grid size of 9, 3 and 1 km. During its first meteorological test, SUMO has proved its great value for the investigation of the diurnal evolution of the ABL and the identification of mesoscale features residing above the ABL, such as subsidence.
KeywordsUnmanned aerial system ABL Fine-scale numerical simulation ABL parameterization schemes WRF Hofsjökull Central Iceland
Supercomputing resources, on a Cray XT4 computer at Parallab at the University of Bergen, have been made available by the Norwegian Research Council. The observational data used in this study were collected as part of the field campaign FLOHOF. The authors wish to acknowledge all participants of FLOHOF, especially Martin Müller, Pascal Brisset and Christian Lindenberg. The improved landuse data set has been kindly provided by Reiknistofa i veðurfræði (Icelandic Institute for Meteorological Research).
- Garratt J (1994) The atmospheric boundary layer. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
- Hong S, Kim S (2007) Stable boundary layer mixing in a vertical diffusion scheme. The Korea Meteorological Society, Fall conference, Seoul, Korea, Oct 25–26Google Scholar
- Janjic Z (1996) The surface layer in the NCEP eta model. 11th conference on numerical weather prediction, American Meteorological Society, pp 354–355Google Scholar
- Janjic Z (2002) Nonsingular implementation of the Mellor-Yamada Level 2.5 Scheme in the NCEP meso models. NCEP Office Note No. 437, 61 pGoogle Scholar
- Jonassen M (2008) The small unmanned meteorological observer (SUMO)—characterization and test of a new measurement system for atmospheric boundary layer research. Master’s thesis, Geophysical Institute, University of BergenGoogle Scholar
- Konrad T, Hill M, Rowland J, Meyer J (1970) A small, radio-controlled aircraft as a platform for meteorological sensors. Appl Phys Lab Tech Digest 10:11–19Google Scholar
- Reuder J, Ablinger M, Águstsson H, Brisset P, Brynjólfsson S, Garhammer M, Johannesson T, Jonassen M, Kühnel R, Lämmlein S, de Lange T, Lindenberg C, Malardel S, Mayer S, Müller M, Ólafsson H, Rögnvaldsson O, Schäper W, Spengler T, Zängl G, Egger J (2009a) FLOHOF 2007: an overview of the mesoscale meteorological field campaign at Hofsjökull, Central Iceland. Meteorol Atmos Phys (this issue)Google Scholar
- Skamarock W, Klemp J, Dudhia J, Gill D, Barker D, Wang W, Powers J (2005) A description of the advanced research WRF version 2. NCAR Tech Notes 468+ STRGoogle Scholar
- Stensrud D (2007) Parameterization schemes: keys to understanding numerical weather prediction models. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
- Stull R (1988) An introduction to boundary layer meteorology. Kluwer Academic Publishers, DordrechtGoogle Scholar