The Canopy and Aerosol Particles Interactions in TOulouse Urban Layer (CAPITOUL) experiment
- 340 Downloads
The CAPITOUL experiment is a joint experimental effort in urban climate, including the energetic exchanges between the surface and the atmosphere, the dynamics of the boundary layer over the city and its interactions with aerosol chemistry. The campaign took place in the city of Toulouse in southwest France, for one year, from February 2004 to February 2005. This allowed the study of both the day-to-day and seasonal variability of urban climate processes. The observational network included surface stations (meteorology, energy balance, chemistry), profilers and, during intensive observing periods, aircraft and balloons.
The urban Surface Energy Balance differs between summer and winter: in summer, the solar heat stored during the previous daytime period is enough to maintain the heat release at night, but in winter, almost all the energy comes from the anthropogenic heat released by space heating. Both processes produce the well known Urban Heat Island (UHI).
The city is shown to impact the entire boundary layer on specific days, when an urban breeze is observed. In wintertime, fog is found to be modified due to the vertical structure of the nocturnal boundary layer above the city (which is slightly unstable and not stable).
The measurements of aerosol properties in and downwind the city permitted documentation of the urban aerosol as well as the chemical transformation of these aerosols, in particular the ageing of carbonaceous aerosols during transport. The Toulouse aerosol is mainly composed of carbonaceous particles. There is important seasonal variation in the ratio of black carbon to organic carbon, in the concentration of sulfates and nitrates and in the related radiative aerosol impacts.
SF6 was released as a tracer in a suburban area of Toulouse during anticyclonic conditions with weak winds. The tracer measurements show dispersion was mainly driven by the surface sensible heat flux, and was highly sensitive to the urban heat island and also to the transport of boundary layer clouds.
Modeling was fully integrated into the campaign. Surface energy balance and urban boundary layer processes have already been used to complement the analyses of the physical processes observed during the campaign. Companion papers detail most of these observation or modeling studies.
- Allwine KJ, Leach MJ, Stockham LW, Shinn JS, Hosker RP, Bowers JF, Pace JC (2004) Overview of joint urban 2003 – An atmospheric dispersion study in Oklahoma City, Planning, Nowcasting, and Forecasting in the Urban Zone Symposium, 84th AMS Annual Meeting, Seattle WA, USAGoogle Scholar
- Briottet X, Lachérade S, Pallotta S, Miesch C, Tanguy B, Le Men H (2006) Acquisition and analysis of a spectral and bidirectional database of urban materials over Toulouse (France), SPIE Defense and Security Symposium, Targets and Backgrounds XII: Characterization and Representation Conference – SPIE 6239-29, 17–21 April 2006, Orlando (Kissimmee), Florida, USAGoogle Scholar
- Cachier, H, Aulagnier, F, Sarda, R, Gautier, F, Masclet, P, Besombes, J-L, Marchand, N, Despiau, S, Croci, D, Mallet, M, Laj, P, Marinoni, A, Deveau, P-A, Roger, J-C, Putaud, J-P, Van Dingenen, R, Dell’Acqua, A, Viidanoja, J, Martins-Dos Santos, S, Liousse, C, Cousin, F, Rosset, R 2005Aerosol studies during the ESCOMPTE Experiment: an overviewAtmos Res74547563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Calvo, AI, Pont, V, Liousse, C, Dupré, B, Mariscal, A, Zouiten, C, Gardrat, E, Castera, P, Lacaux, CG, Castro, A, Fraile, R 2008Chemical composition of urban aerosols in Toulouse, France during CAPITOUL experimentMeteorol Atmos Phys102307323Google Scholar
- Churnside JH (1992) Wave propagation in random media (scintillation). Congress Optical Remote Sensing. Seattle WA, USA. 1993, pp. 235–47 [Note(s): XII, 487 p.] (24 ref.), ISBN 0-8194-1062-4Google Scholar
- De Rosnay, P Jean-Christophe, C Yann, K Jean-Pierre, W Francois, L Maria, JE Munoz, SJ Kauzar, S Joel, B Gilles, B Laurent, C Guy, C Gerard, D Roger, D Nour, EDF Francis, F Joost, H Alain, K Francois, L David, S Philippe, W SMOSREX2006A long term field campaign experiment for soil moisture and land surface processes remote sensingRemote Sens Environ102377389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gastellu-Etchegorry, JP 20083D modeling of satellite spectral images, radiation budget and energy budget of urban landscapesMeteorol Atmos Phys102187207Google Scholar
- Gomes, L, Mallet, M, Roger, JC, Dubuisson, P 2008Effects of the physical and optical properties of urban aerosols measured during the CAPITOUL summer campaign on the local direct radiative forcingMeteorol Atmos Phys102289306Google Scholar
- Grimmond CSB, Salmond JA, Oke TR, Offerle B, Lemonsu A (2005) Flux and turbulence measurements at a densely built-up site in Marseille: heat, mass (water, carbon dioxide) and momentum. JGR-Atmospheres, 109, D24, D24101, 19 pp; DOI: 10.1029/2004JD004936Google Scholar
- Hidalgo, J, Pigeon, G, Masson, V 2008aUrban-breeze circulation during the CAPITOUL experiment: observational data analysis approachMeteorol Atmos Phys102223241Google Scholar
- Hidalgo, J, Masson, V, Pigeon, G 2008bUrban-breeze circulation during the CAPITOUL experiment: numerical simulationsMeteorol Atmos Phys102243262Google Scholar
- Klemm, O, et al. 1995
Transport and distribution of air pollutants in Athens (Greece), Aircraft measurements during MEDCAPHOT-TRACEMoussiopoulos, N eds. Air pollution IIIUrban Pollution, Computational Mechanics PublicationSouthampton161168Google Scholar
- Lac, C, Bonnardot, F, Camail, C, Connan, O, Maro, D, Hebert, D, Rozet, M, Pergaud, J 2008Evaluation of a mesoscale dispersion modelling tool during the CAPITOUL experimentMeteorol Atmos Phys102263287Google Scholar
- Lachérade, S, Miesch, C, Briottet, X, Le Men, H 2005Spectral variability and bidirectional reflectance behaviour of urban materials at a 20 cm spatial resolution in the visible and near-infrared wavelength. A case study over Toulouse (France)IJRS Lett2638593866Google Scholar
- Lachérade, S, Miesch, C, Boldo, D, Briottet, X, Valorge, C, Le Men, H 2008ICARE: a physically-based model to correct atmospheric and geometric effects from high spatial and spectral remote sensing images over 3D urban areasMeteorol Atmos Phys102209222Google Scholar
- Lafore, J-P, Stein, J, Asencio, N, Bougeault, P, Ducrocq, V, Duron, J, Fisher, C, Hereil, P, Mascart, P, Masson, V, Pinty, J-P, Redelsperger, J-L, Richard, E, Vila-Guerau de Arellano, J 1998The Méso-NH atmospheric simulation system. Part I: Adiabatic formulation and control simulationAnn Geophys1690109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lagouarde, J-P, Irvine, M 2008Directional anisotropy in thermal infrared measurements over Toulouse city centre during the CAPITOUL measurement campaigns: first resultsMeteorol Atmos Phys102173185Google Scholar
- Lagouarde, J-P, Moreau, P, Irvine, M, Bonnefond, J-M, Voogt, J, Solice, F 2004Airborne experimental measurements of the angular variation in surface temperature over urban areas: case study of Marseille (France)Remote Sens Environ3725082517Google Scholar
- Lagouarde, J-P, Irvine, M, Bonnefond, J-M, Grimmond, CSB, Long, N, Oke, TR, Salmond, JA, Offerle, B 2006Monitoring the sensible heat flux over urban areas using large aperture scintillometry: case study of Marseille city during the ESCOMPTE experimentBound Layer Meteorol118449476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Massera S (2005) Exploitation d’une base de données urbaines en vie d’extraire des paramètres utiles aux modèles météorologiques. Technical report, in french, Meteo France, available on request from the authorsGoogle Scholar
- Masson, V, Grimmond, CSB, Oke, TR 2002Evaluation of the Town Energy Balance (TEB) scheme with direct measurements from dry districts in two citiesJ Appl Meteor4110111026Google Scholar
- Mestayer, P, Durand, P, Augustin, P, Bastin, S, Bonnefond, J-M, Bénech, B, Campistron, B, Coppalle, A, Delbarre, H, Dousset, B, Drobinski, Ph, Druilhet, A, Fréjafon, E, Grimmond, S, Groleau, D, Irvine, M, Kergomard, C, Kermadi, S, Lagouarde, J-P, Lemonsu, A, Lohou, F, Long, N, Masson, V, Moppert, C, Noilhan, J, Offerle, B, Oke, T, Pigeon, G, Puygrenier, V, Roberts, S, Rosant, J-M, Saïd, F, Salmond, J, Talbaut, M, Voogt, J 2005The urban boundary layer field experiment over marseille UBL/CLU-escompte: experimental set-up and first resultsBound Layer Meteorol114315365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Menut, L, Vautard, R, Flamant, C, Abonnel, C, Beekmann, M, Chazette, P, Flamant, PH, Gombert, D, Guédalia, D, Kley, D, Levebvre, M-P, Lossec, B, Martin, D, Mégie, G, Sicard, M, Perros, P, Toupance, G 2000Measurement and modelling of atmospheric pollution over the Paris area: The ESQUIF ProjectAnn Geophys1814671481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Oke, TR 1987Boundary layer climates2MethuenLondon435Google Scholar
- Poutier L, Briottet X, Serrot G, Miesch C, Coret L, Malaplate A, Lemaître F, Dedieu G, Demarez V, Kerr Y, Marty G, Lavenu F, Calvet JC, Fritz N, Stoll MP, Nerry F, Barillot P (2002) PIRRENE: a multidisciplinary research program about field radiometry. Int Symp OPTRO’ 2002-AAAF, Paris, France, January 2002Google Scholar
- Rotach, MW, Vogt, R, Bernhofer, D, Batchvarova, E, Christen, A, Clappier, A, Feddersen, B, Gryning, S-E, Martucci, G, Mayer, H, Mitev, V, Oke, TR, Parlow, E, Richner, H, Roth, M, Roulet, Y-A, Ruffieux, D, Salmond, J-A, Schatzmann, M, Voogt, JA 2005BUBBLE – an Urban Boundary Layer Meteorology ProjectTheor Appl Climatol81231261DOI: 10.1007/s00704-004-0117-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Salmond J, Pigeon G, Legain D, Masson V (2006) Vertical transport of pollutants at night in Toulouse, France, 6th International Conference on Urban Climate, Göteborg, SwedenGoogle Scholar
- Voogt, JA, Grimmond, CSB 2000Modeling surface sensible heat flux using surface radiative temperatures in a simple urban areaJ Appl Meteor3916791699Google Scholar