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Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics

, Volume 96, Issue 3–4, pp 277–291 | Cite as

Clear-sky aerosol radiative forcing effects based on multi-site AERONET observations over Europe

  • S. Gonzi
  • O. Dubovik
  • D. Baumgartner
  • E. Putz
Article

Summary

One of the great unknowns in climate research is the contribution of aerosols to climate forcing and climate perturbation. In this study, retrievals from AERONET are used to estimate the direct clear-sky aerosol top-of-atmosphere and surface radiative forcing effects for 12 multi-site observing stations in Europe. The radiative transfer code sdisort in the libRadtran environment is applied to accomplish these estimations. Most of the calculations in this study rely on observations which have been made for the years 1999, 2000, and 2001. Some stations do have observations dating back to the year of 1995. The calculations rely on a pre-compiled aerosol optical properties database for Europe. Aerosol radiative forcing effects are calculated with monthly mean aerosol optical properties retrievals and calculations are presented for three different surface albedo scenarios. Two of the surface albedo scenarios are generic by nature bare soil and green vegetation and the third relies on the ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) data product. The ISCCP database has also been used to obtain clear-sky weighting fractions over AERONET stations. The AERONET stations cover the area 0° to 30° E and 42° to 52° N. AERONET retrievals are column integrated and this study does not make any seperation between the contribution of natural and anthropogenic components. For the 12 AERONET stations, median clear-sky top-of-atmosphere aerosol radiative forcing effect values for different surface albedo scenarios are calculated to be in the range of −4 to −2 W/m2. High median radiative forcing effect values of about −6 W/m2 were found to occur mainly in the summer months while lower values of about −1 W/m2 occur in the winter months. The aerosol surface forcing also increases in summer months and can reach values of −8 W/m2. Individual stations often have much higher values by a factor of 2. The median top-of-atmosphere aerosol radiative forcing effect efficiency is estimated to be about −25 W/m2 and their respective surface efficiency is around −35 W/m2. The fractional absorption coefficient is estimated to be 1.7, but deviates significantly from station to station. In addition, it is found that the well known peak of the aerosol radiative forcing effect at a solar zenith angle of about 75° is in fact the average of the peaks occurring at shorter and longer wavelengths. According to estimations for Central Europe, based on mean aerosol optical properties retrievals from 12 stations, the critical threshold of the aerosol single scattering albedo, between cooling and heating in the presence of an aerosol layer, is close between 0.6 and 0.76.

Keywords

Aerosol Optical Depth Surface Albedo Solar Zenith Angle Anthropogenic Aerosol International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Gonzi
    • 1
  • O. Dubovik
    • 2
  • D. Baumgartner
    • 3
  • E. Putz
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Geophysics, Astrophysics and Meteorology, Institute for PhysicsUniversity of GrazGrazAustria
  2. 2.Laboratoire d’Optique AtmosphériqueUniversité des Sciences et Technologies de LilleFrance
  3. 3.Kanzelhöhe Solar Observatory, University of GrazGrazAustria

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