Advertisement

Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics

, Volume 94, Issue 1–4, pp 209–218 | Cite as

Mesoscale and macroscale aspects of the morning Urban Heat Island around Athens, Greece

  • P. A. Kassomenos
  • B. D. Katsoulis
Article

Summary

This paper examines the characteristics of the morning Urban Heat Island (UHI) in Athens basin, Greece. The study is performed by using and analyzing mesoscale and synoptic data covering the period 1990–2001. The UHI was estimated using the 0600 Local Time (LT) minimum temperature differences between rural and urban areas of the city. The analysis results in 7 UHI classes. A strong UHI was found for the 1/3 of days. The specific meteorological characteristics (surface and upper air, cooling rate) of each UHI class were revealed and examined. The spatial and temporal characteristics of the UHI were also identified.

The UHI is largest on nights with clear skies and low relative humidity. In all seasons the UHI switches on rapidly in afternoon. During spring and summer, sea breeze commonly reduces and delays the UHI. Cases documenting the sensitivity and rapidity of changes of the UHI to changes in classes (cloud cover, wind) are also presented. The cooling rate is higher in the urban area under negative and lower under positive UHI conditions.

Mesoscale and macroscale phenomena were examined during the different UHI classes through a weather type scheme. It was emerged that high UHI classes are associated with anticyclonic conditions or advection in the lower troposphere, while low UHI classes are associated with strong northeasterly winds. Anticyclonic conditions which frequently occur in spring and early summer, reduce or reverse the UHI to Urban Cooling Island.

Keywords

Wind Speed Urban Heat Island Bound Layer Meteorol Total Cloud Cover Total Cloud Amount 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arnfield, JA 2003Two decades of urban climate research. A review of turbulence exchanges of energy and water and the Urban Heat IslandInt J Climatol23126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bejaran, RA, Camiloni, IA 2003Objective method for classifying air masses: an application to the analysis of Buenos Aires (Argentina) Urban Heat Island intensityTheor Appl Climatol7493103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dixon, PG, Mote, TL 2003Patterns and causes of Atlanta’s Urban Heat Island-initiated precipitationJ Appl Meteorol4212731284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Figuerola, PI, Mazzeo, NA 1999Urban–rural temperature differences in Buenos AiresInt J Climatol1817091723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gedzelman, SD, Austin, S, Cermak, R, Stefano, N, Partriage, S, Quesenberry, S, Robinson, DA 2003Mesoscale aspects of the Urban Heat Island around New York CityTheor Appl Climatol752942Google Scholar
  6. Holmer, B, Eliasson, I 1999Urban–rural pressure differences and their role in the development of Urban Heat IslandsInt J Climatol199891009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Johnson, GT, Oke, TR, Lyons, TJ, Steyn, DG, Watson, ID, Voogt, JA 1991Simulation of surface Urban Heat Islands under “ideal” conditions at night. Part 1: Theory and tests against field dataBound Layer Meteorol56275294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kassomenos, P, Sindosi, O, Lolis, C 2003Seasonal variation of the circulation types occurring over southern Greece: a 50-y studyClimate Res243346Google Scholar
  9. Katsoulis BD (1970) The anemological conditions in the Aegean Sea. Doctoral Thesis, University of Athens, Greece (in Greek)Google Scholar
  10. Katsoulis, BD, Theoharatos, G 1985Indications of the Urban Heat Island in Athens, GreeceJ Clim Appl Meteorol2412961302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kidder, SQ, Essenwanger, OM 1995The effects of clouds and wind on the difference in nocturnal cooling rates between urban and rural areasJ Appl Meteorol3424402448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lalas, DP, Viris, VR, Karras, G, Kallos, G 1982An analysis of SO2 concentrations levels in Athens, GreeceAtmos Environ16531546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lalas, DP, Asimakopoulos, D, Deligiorgi, D, Helmis, C 1983Sea breeze circulation and photochemical pollution in Athens, GreeceAtmos Environ1716211632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Livada, I, Santamouris, M, Niachou, K, Papanikolaou, N, Mihalakakou, G 2002Determination of places in the greater Athens area where the heat island effect is observedTheor Appl Climatol71219230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mihalakakou, G, Flocas, HA, Santamouris, M, Helmis, CG 2002Application of neural networks to the simulation of the heat island over Athens, Greece, using synoptic types as a predictorJ Appl Meteorol41519527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Morris, CJG, Simmonds, I 2000Associations between varying magnitudes of the urban heat island and the synoptic climatology in Melbourne, AustraliaInt J Climatol2019311954CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Morris, CJG, Simmonds, I, Plummer, N 2001Quantification of the Influences of wind and cloud on the nocturnal heat island of a large cityJ Appl Meteorol40169182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Oke, TR 1982The energetic basis of the Urban Heat IslandQ J R Meteorol Soc108124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Oke, TR 1988The urban energy balancePhys Geogr12471508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Oke TR (1995) The heat island characteristics of he Urban boundary layer: Characteristics, causes and effects. In: Wind climate in cities, Cermak JE, Davenport AG, Plate EJ, Viegas DX, eds, pp 81–102Google Scholar
  21. Oke, TR, Johnson, GT, Steyn, DG, Watson, ID 1991Simulation of nocturnal surface Urban Heat Islands under “ideal” conditions: Part 2. Diagnosis of causationBound Layer Meteorol56339338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Philandras, CM, Metaxas, DA, Nastos, PT 1999Climate variability and urbanization in AthensTheor Appl Climatol636572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Runnalls, KE, Oke, TR 2000Dynamics and controls of the near surface heat island of Vancouver, British ColumbiaPhys Geogr21283304Google Scholar
  24. Santamouris, M, Mihalakakou, G, Papanikolaou, N, Asimakopoulos, DN 1999A neural network approach for modeling the heat island phenomenon in urban areas during the summer periodGeophys Res Lett26337340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. United Nations (2001) Indicators on human settlements. United Nations Statistics Division. (http://www.un.org/Dept/unsd/social/human-set.htm), accessed 1 July 2001
  26. Weather in The Mediterranean (1962) Meteorological office, vol. 1, 2nd ed. General Meteorology. H. M. Stat. Office, London, UKGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. A. Kassomenos
    • 1
  • B. D. Katsoulis
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Meteorology, Department of PhysicsUniversity of IoanninaIoanninaGreece

Personalised recommendations