Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics

, Volume 92, Issue 3–4, pp 255–284 | Cite as

Unstationary aspects of foehn in a large valley part I: operational setup, scientific objectives and analysis of the cases during the special observing period of the MAP subprogramme FORM

  • H. Richner
  • K. Baumann-Stanzer
  • B. Benech
  • H. Berger
  • B. Chimani
  • M. Dorninger
  • P. Drobinski
  • M. Furger
  • S. Gubser
  • T. Gutermann
  • C. Häberli
  • E. Häller
  • M. Lothon
  • V. Mitev
  • D. Ruffieux
  • G. Seiz
  • R. Steinacker
  • S. Tschannett
  • S. Vogt
  • R. Werner
Article

Summary

The Rhine valley, which stretches from the main Alpine crest to the Lake of Constance, was chosen as the target area to study unstationary aspects of foehn during the Special Observing Period (SOP) of the Mesoscale Alpine Programme (MAP). This large valley is up to 10 km wide and has some of the highest foehn frequencies in the European Alps. The MAP subprogram FORM (FOehn in the Rhine valley during MAP) was designed to investigate various aspects of the foehn including the interaction of foehn flow with the boundary layer and the processes that remove the cold air pool. The subprogram was also focused on improving the understanding and forecasting of foehn-related phenomena such as waves and turbulence. A large number of in-situ and remote sensing observing systems were deployed to take measurements during the field phase of MAP. Among them were about 50 surface stations, up to 9 radiosonde stations, 2 wind profilers, 4 Doppler sodars, 2 scintillometers, 1 scanning and 1 backscatter lidar and different research aircraft. This paper gives an overview of the objectives of FORM, describes the target area and its instrumentation, and provides a detailed synoptic description of the 12 foehn cases observed during the MAP SOP.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Amt der Vorarlberger Landesregierung (2002) Klima von Vorarlberg. Eine anwendungsorientierte Klimatographie, Bd III. Bregenz: Amt der Vorarlberger LandesregierungGoogle Scholar
  2. Baumann, K, Maurer, H, Rau, G, Piringer, M, Pechinger, U, Prévôt, A, Furger, M, Neininger, B, Pellegrini, U 2001The influence of south foehn on the ozone distribution in the Alpine Rhine valley – results from the MAP field phaseAtmos Environ3563796390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Benech, B, Druilhet, A, Cordesse, R, Dartiguelongues, B, Fournet-Fayard, J, Mesnager, J-C, Durand, P, Malaterre, A 1987Un dispositif expérimental utilisant des balloons plafonnats pour l étude de la couche limite atmosphériquesAdv Space Res77783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Binder P, Schär C (1996) MAP design proposal. Available from the MAP Programme Office, MeteoSwiss, 8044, Zurich, Switzerland, 75 pp. (http://www.map.meteoswiss.ch/map-doc/proposal.htm)
  5. Bolliger, M, Binder, P 1998Some considerations on south foehn in the Rhine valleyMAP-Newsletter83132Google Scholar
  6. Bougeault P, Binder P, Kuettner J (eds) (1998) MAP Mesoscale Alpine Programme, Science Plan, Zurich: Meteo Swiss (http://www.map.meteoswiss.ch/splan/spindex.htm)
  7. Bougeault, P, Binder, P, Buzzi, A, Dirks, R, Houze, R, Kuettner, J, Smith, RB, Steinacker, R, Volkert, H 2001The MAP Special Observing PeriodBull Amer Meteor Soc82433462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Burri K, Hächler P, Schüepp M, Werner R (1999) Der Föhnfall vom April 1993. Arbeitsbericht Schweizerische Meteorologische Anstalt Nr. 196.Google Scholar
  9. Buzzi, A, Giovanelli, G, Nanni, T, Tagliazucca, M 1984Study of high ozone concentrations in the troposphere associated with lee cyclogenesis during ALPEXContrib Atmos Phys57380392Google Scholar
  10. Drobinski, Ph, Dabas, AM, Haeberli, Ch, Flamant, PH 2001On the small scale dynamics of flow splitting in the Rhine valley during a shallow foehn eventBound-Layer Meteorol99277296Google Scholar
  11. Frioud M, Mitev V, Matthey R (2000) Backscatter lidar study of PBL structure in Rhine valley during MAP-FORM. In: Advances in Laser Remote Sensing (Dabas A, Loth C, Pelon J, eds), Selected papers presented at the 20th Int Laser Radar Conf (ILRC), Vichy, France 10–14 July 2000, pp 475–478Google Scholar
  12. Gutermann T (1970) Vergleichende Untersuchungen zur Föhnhäufigkeit im Rheintal zwischen Chur und Bodensee. Ph.D. thesis, Veröffentlichung der Schweizer Meteorologischen Anstalt, ZürichGoogle Scholar
  13. Häberli, Ch, Gubser, St, Dürr, B, Spatzierer, M, Steinacker, R, Gutermann, T 2000Foehn frequencies at surface stations in the Rhine valley during the SOPMAP Newsletter134041Google Scholar
  14. Hann J (1882) Über den Föhn in Bludenz. Sitzungsber. Math.-Naturwiss. Klasse der kaiserlichen Akad. der Wiss.Google Scholar
  15. Hoinka, KP 1991On looming during the Alpine foehnBound-Layer Meteorol57289294Google Scholar
  16. Lee, TJ, Pielke, RA, Kessler, RC, Weaver, J 1989Influence of cold pools downstream of mountain barriers on downslope winds and flushingMon Wea Rev11720412058CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. MAP-Homepage: www.map.ethz.ch
  18. Peppler, W 1926Zur Aerologie des föhnesBeitr Phys Atmos12128214Google Scholar
  19. Peppler, W 1930Schema eines Föhnausbruchs aus dem RheintalDas Wetter477884Google Scholar
  20. Peppler, W 1935Über die südlichen Luftströmungen auf dem Säntis und in der freien Atmosphäre über dem BodenseeBeitr Phys Atmos22111Google Scholar
  21. Poggio, L, Furger, M, Prévot, ASH, Graber, WK 2000Scintillometer wind measurements over complex terrainJ Atmos Oceanic Technol171726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Röttger J, Larsen MF (1990) UHF/VHF radar techniques for atmospheric research and wind profiler applications. In: Radar in meteorology (Atlas D, ed), Amer Meteorol Soc, Boston, Mass, pp 235–281Google Scholar
  23. Seibert P (1985) Fallstudien und statistische Untersuchungen zum Südföhn im Raum Innsbruck. Ph.D. thesis, University of InnsbruckGoogle Scholar
  24. Seibert, P 1990South foehn studies since the ALPEX experimentMeteorol Atmos Phys4391103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Steinacker, R 1991ALPEX-DatenPromet217983Google Scholar
  26. Steinacker, R 1999Strawman scenario for MAP-SOP eventsMAP Newsletter1025Google Scholar
  27. Streiff-Becker R (1947) Der Dimmerföhn. Vierteljahresschrift der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft Zürich, pp 195–198Google Scholar
  28. Vergeiner J (2004) South foehn studies and a new foehn classification scheme in the Wipp and Inn valley. PhD thesis, University of Innsbruck, Austria (http://meteo9.uibk.ac.at/dissertations/Vergeiner_Johannes_2004_Diss.pdf)
  29. Waibel K (1984) Statistik des Foehns im Bodenseeraum im Vergleich mit dem Reusstal (Altdorf). Arbeitsbericht der Schweizerischen Meteorologischen Zentralanstalt, no. 118Google Scholar
  30. Wege, K 1985ALPEX – ein meteorologisches Experiment in den AlpenGeowiss in unserer Zeit33744Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Richner
    • 1
  • K. Baumann-Stanzer
    • 2
  • B. Benech
    • 3
  • H. Berger
    • 4
  • B. Chimani
    • 5
  • M. Dorninger
    • 5
  • P. Drobinski
    • 6
  • M. Furger
    • 7
  • S. Gubser
    • 1
  • T. Gutermann
    • 8
  • C. Häberli
    • 5
    • 9
  • E. Häller
    • 9
  • M. Lothon
    • 3
  • V. Mitev
    • 10
  • D. Ruffieux
    • 4
  • G. Seiz
    • 11
  • R. Steinacker
    • 5
  • S. Tschannett
    • 5
  • S. Vogt
    • 12
  • R. Werner
    • 13
  1. 1.Institute for Atmospheric and Climate ScienceETH ZurichSwitzerland
  2. 2.ZAMG, Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und GeophysikViennaAustria
  3. 3.Laboratoire d’aérologieToulouseFrance
  4. 4.MeteoSwissPayerneSwitzerland
  5. 5.Department of Meteorology and GeophysicsUniversity of ViennaAustria
  6. 6.Institute Pierre Simon Laplace/Service d’Aéronomie, Université Pierre et Marie CurieParisFrance
  7. 7.Paul Scherrer InstitutVilligenSwitzerland
  8. 8.former Director of MeteoSwissZurichSwitzerland
  9. 9.Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology (MeteoSwiss)ZurichSwitzerland
  10. 10.Observatory of NeuchâtelSwitzerland
  11. 11.Institute for Geodesy and PhotogrammetryETH ZurichSwitzerland
  12. 12.Institute of Meteorology and Climate ResearchKarlsruheGermany
  13. 13.Umweltinstitut des Landes VorarlbergAustria

Personalised recommendations