CSF levels of tau, β-amyloid1–42 and GAP-43 in frontotemporal dementia, other types of dementia and normal aging
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Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of tau, β-amyloid1–42 and growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) were studied in patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD; n = 17), Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 60), subcortical white-matter dementia (SWD; n = 24), Parkinson's disease (PD; n = 23) and dysthymia (n = 19) and in age-matched controls (n = 32). CSF-tau was significantly increased only in AD, and CSF-β-amyloid1–42 was significantly decreased in AD and SWD as compared to controls, and in AD compared to FTD. CSF-GAP-43 was significantly decreased only in PD. The GAP-43/tau ratio was decreased in all the patient groups except the dysthymia group compared to controls. A positive correlation was found between CSF-GAP-43 and CSF-tau in all groups. The results suggest normal levels of CSF-tau and CSF-β-amyloid1–42 in FTD, which will aid in the clinical separation of FTD from AD. In SWD, decreased levels of CSF-β-amyloid1–42 suggest concomitant involvement of vascular and amyloid protein mechanisms.
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