Effect of CRHR1 and CRHR2 gene polymorphisms and childhood trauma in suicide attempt

  • M. A. Sanabrais-Jiménez
  • C. E. Sotelo-Ramirez
  • B. Ordoñez-Martinez
  • J. Jiménez-Pavón
  • G. Ahumada-Curiel
  • S. Piana-Diaz
  • G. Flores-Flores
  • M. Flores-Ramos
  • A. Jiménez-Anguiano
  • B. CamarenaEmail author
Psychiatry and Preclinical Psychiatric Studies - Original Article


Family, twin, and adoption studies have suggested that genetic factors might be involved in suicidal behavior. Corticotropin-releasing receptor type 1 (CRHR1) and 2 (CRHR2) genes play a key role in the activation and modulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, which is considered a major stress regulator. Childhood trauma is an environmental risk factor associated with suicide attempt (SA) and it has been related to HPA axis dysregulation. This study aimed at analyzing the relationship of CRHR1 and CRHR2 genes with childhood trauma concerning the development of SA. In this study, we included 366 affective disorder patients. Among them, 183 patients had SA at least once and 183 had not SA. Information regarding SA and childhood trauma was obtained from medical records. Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction program was used to detect gene–environment interactions between CRHR1 (rs110402, rs242924, and rs16940665) and CRHR2 (rs2190242, rs2284217, and rs2014663) with childhood trauma in SA. The analysis showed an interaction of CRHR1 and CRHR2 with childhood trauma, thus conferring increased risk of having presented at least one SA (OR 7.44; 95% CI 4.58–12.07; p < 0.0001). In addition, we observed the following in the trauma subtypes analysis: physical negligence (OR 4.72; 95% CI 3.01–7.40; p < 0.0001), emotional abuse (OR 5.76; 95% CI 3.67–9.05; p < 0.0001), and sexual abuse (OR 5.70; 95% CI 3.62–8.97; p < 0.0001). Our results suggested that genetic variants of CRHR1 and CRHR2 genes in addition to physical negligence, and emotional and sexual abuse, contribute to increase risk of presented at least one SA.


Suicide attempt Corticotropin-releasing receptor G × E interaction Childhood trauma 



This work was supported by Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia Scholarship (no. 302028) to Marco Sanabrais and by Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz. We thank all patients for participating in this study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in this study were in accordance with the Ethics Committee of the Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente Muñíz and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

702_2019_1991_MOESM1_ESM.docx (17 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 17 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. A. Sanabrais-Jiménez
    • 1
    • 2
  • C. E. Sotelo-Ramirez
    • 2
  • B. Ordoñez-Martinez
    • 2
  • J. Jiménez-Pavón
    • 2
  • G. Ahumada-Curiel
    • 3
  • S. Piana-Diaz
    • 3
  • G. Flores-Flores
    • 3
  • M. Flores-Ramos
    • 4
  • A. Jiménez-Anguiano
    • 5
  • B. Camarena
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Doctorado en Ciencias Biológicas y de la SaludUniversidad Autónoma Metropolitana-IztapalapaMexico CityMexico
  2. 2.Departamento de FarmacogenéticaInstituto Nacional de Psiquiatría “Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz”Mexico CityMexico
  3. 3.Dirección de Servicios ClínicosInstituto Nacional de Psiquiatría “Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz”Mexico CityMexico
  4. 4.Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología, Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría “Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz”Mexico CityMexico
  5. 5.Área de Neurociencias, Departamento de Biología de la ReproducciónUniversidad Autónoma Metropolitana-IztapalapaMexico CityMexico

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