Journal of Neural Transmission

, Volume 126, Issue 1, pp 5–18 | Cite as

An analysis of allele, genotype and phenotype frequencies, actionable pharmacogenomic (PGx) variants and phenoconversion in 5408 Australian patients genotyped for CYP2D6, CYP2C19, CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genes

  • Sam MostafaEmail author
  • Carl M. J. Kirkpatrick
  • Keith Byron
  • Leslie Sheffield
Psychiatry and Preclinical Psychiatric Studies - Original Article


Common polymorphisms in the genes encoding CYP2D6, CYP2C19, CYP2C9 and VKORC1 enzymes have an important role in predicting the occurrence of adverse effects and the efficacy of substrate medications. Drug-induced changes to the enzyme’s phenotype, a process called phenoconversion, comprise another important factor contributing to interindividual variability in drug response. To date, there is lack of data on the frequency of these common polymorphisms and phenoconversion in the pan-ethnic Australian population. The aim of this study was to (1) describe allele, genotype and phenotype frequencies for CYP2D6, CYP2C19, CYP2C9 and VKORC1 enzymes in the pan-ethnic Australian population and (2) evaluate the frequency of actionable pharmacogenomic (PGx) variants and phenoconversion. Frequencies were calculated using the records of 5408 Australian patients (obtained from myDNA’s propriety database), who were consecutively tested with the DNAdose PGx test which included the CYP2D6, CYP2C19, CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genes. In 2509 patients with listed medications at the time of testing, phenoconversion frequencies were calculated for CYP2D6, CYP2C19 and CYP2C9 enzymes. Allele, genotype and phenotype frequencies in our Australian patients correlated with a Caucasian population. Approximately 96% of patients had at least one actionable PGx variant. A five-fold increase in the frequency of poor metabolisers (PMs) for CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 was predicted by phenoconversion. Our study results indicate a high frequency of actionable PGx variants in our Australian population. With the addition of drug-induced phenoconversion, our results provide further support for the utilisation of PGx testing in clinical practice as another tool assisting prescribers in the application of personalised medicine.


Pharmacogenomic CYP2D6 CYP2C19 CYP2C9 VKORC1 Actionable Phenoconversion 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Medicine Use and SafetyMonash UniversityParkvilleAustralia
  2. 2.MyDNA Life, Australia LimitedSouth YarraAustralia
  3. 3.Australian Clinical LabsClaytonAustralia

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