Journal of Neural Transmission

, Volume 125, Issue 5, pp 781–795 | Cite as

The IL-1β phenomena in neuroinflammatory diseases

  • Andrew S. Mendiola
  • Astrid E. CardonaEmail author
Neurology and Preclinical Neurological Studies - Review Article


It is becoming increasingly clear that neuroinflammation has a causal role in the pathogenesis of central nervous system (CNS)-related diseases, and therefore therapeutic strategies targeting the regulation or availability of inflammatory mediators can be used to prevent or mitigate pathology. Interestingly, the proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), has been implicated in perpetuating immune responses and contributing to disease severity in a variety of CNS diseases ranging from multiple sclerosis, neurodegenerative diseases, traumatic brain injury, and diabetic retinopathy. Moreover, pharmacological blockade of IL-1 signaling has shown to be beneficial in some autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases, making IL-1β a promising therapeutic target in neuroinflammatory conditions. This review highlights recent advances of our understanding on the multifaceted roles of IL-1β in neuroinflammatory diseases.


IL-1β Neuroinflammation Multiple sclerosis Alzheimer’s disease Diabetic retinopathy Microglia 



The Cardona Laboratory is funded by the US National Institutes of Health Grants SC1GM095426 and R01NS078501, and the San Antonio Area Foundation.

Author contributions

ASM and AEC were involved in data acquisition, interpretation and writing of manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare they have no competing financial interests.


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© Springer-Verlag Wien 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of Texas at San AntonioSan AntonioUSA

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