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Journal of Neural Transmission

, Volume 124, Issue 8, pp 901–905 | Cite as

Epidemiology of Parkinson’s disease

  • Ole-Bjørn Tysnes
  • Anette Storstein
Neurology and Preclinical Neurological Studies - Review Article

Abstract

Parkinson’s disease (PD) affects 1–2 per 1000 of the population at any time. PD prevalence is increasing with age and PD affects 1% of the population above 60 years. The main neuropathological finding is α-synuclein-containing Lewy bodies and loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, manifesting as reduced facilitation of voluntary movements. With progression of PD, Lewy body pathology spreads to neocortical and cortical regions. PD is regarded as a movement disorder with three cardinal signs: tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia. A recent revision of the diagnostic criteria excludes postural instability as a fourth hallmark and defines supportive criteria, absolute exclusion criteria and red flags. Non-motor symptoms in PD have gained increasing attention and both motor and non-motor signs are now included among the supportive criteria. The cause of PD is unknown in most cases. Genetic risk factors have been identified, including monogenetic causes that are rare in unselected populations. Some genetic factor can be identified in 5–10% of the patients. Several environmental factors are associated with increased risk of PD. Autopsy studies show that the clinical diagnosis of PD is not confirmed at autopsy in a significant proportion of patients. Revised diagnostic criteria are expected to improve the clinician´s accuracy in diagnosing PD. Increasing knowledge on genetic and environmental risk factors of PD will probably elucidate the cause of this disease within the near future.

Keywords

Parkinson’s disease Epidemiology Diagnostic criteria Non-motor symptoms 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurologyHaukeland University HospitalBergenNorway

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