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Journal of Neural Transmission

, Volume 123, Issue 8, pp 885–894 | Cite as

Interacting effect of MAOA genotype and maternal prenatal smoking on aggressive behavior in young adulthood

  • Sarah Hohmann
  • Katrin Zohsel
  • Arlette F. Buchmann
  • Dorothea Blomeyer
  • Nathalie Holz
  • Regina Boecker-Schlier
  • Christine Jennen-Steinmetz
  • Marcella Rietschel
  • Stephanie H. Witt
  • Martin H. Schmidt
  • Günter Esser
  • Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg
  • Tobias Banaschewski
  • Daniel Brandeis
  • Erika Hohm
  • Manfred Laucht
Psychiatry and Preclinical Psychiatric Studies - Original Article

Abstract

Findings on the etiology of aggressive behavior have provided evidence for an effect both of genetic factors, such as variation in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene, and adverse environmental factors. Recent studies have supported the existence of gene × environment interactions, with early experiences playing a key role. In the present study, the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure, MAOA genotype and their interaction on aggressive behavior during young adulthood were examined. In a sample of 272 young adults (129 males, 143 females) from an epidemiological cohort study, smoking during pregnancy was measured with a standardized parent interview at the offspring’s age of 3 months. Aggressive behavior was assessed between the ages of 19 and 25 years using the Young Adult Self-Report. DNA was genotyped for the MAOA 5′ untranslated region variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism (VNTR). Results revealed a significant interaction between MAOA and smoking during pregnancy, indicating higher levels of aggressive behavior in young adults carrying the MAOA low-expressing genotype who had experienced prenatal nicotine exposure (n = 8, p = .025). In contrast, in carriers of the MAOA high-expressing genotype, maternal smoking during pregnancy had no effect on aggressive behavior during young adulthood (n = 20, p = .145). This study extends earlier findings demonstrating an interaction between MAOA genotype and prenatal nicotine exposure on aggressive behavior into young adulthood. The results point to the long-term adverse effects of smoking during pregnancy on the offspring’s mental health, possibly underlining the importance of smoking cessation during pregnancy. According to the nature of the study (particularly sample size and power), analyses are exploratory and results need to be interpreted cautiously.

Keywords

MAOA Smoking during pregnancy Interaction Aggression Longitudinal Young adulthood 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank E. Reichert and S. Heinzel, who assisted with the data acquisition. This study was supported by grants from the German Research Foundation (DFG) and the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research as part of the ‘Baden-Wuerttemberg Consortium for Addiction Research’ and the ‘National Genome Research Network’.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

TB served in an advisory or consultancy role for Bristol Myers-Sqibb, Desitin, Lilly, Medice, Novartis, Pfizer, Shire and Viforpharma. He received conference attendance support and conference support or received speaker’s fees from Lilly, Janssen McNeil, Medice, Novartis, and Shire. He is/has been involved in clinical trials conducted by Lilly, Shire and Novartis. SH received a speaker’s fee from Janssen-Cilag. A. M.-L. has received fees for consultancy from Lundbeck International Neuroscience, Thieme Verlag Germany, and Elsevier USA; for lectures, including travel fees, from Aula Médica Congresos, Groupo Ferrer International, Janssen-Cilag, Lilly Deutschland, Roche Pharma AG; and also grants from the Federal Office for Radiation Protection Germany and the Prix Roger de Spoelberch. The present work is unrelated to the above grants and relationships. All other authors declare that they have no biomedical financial interest or potential conflicts of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sarah Hohmann
    • 1
  • Katrin Zohsel
    • 1
  • Arlette F. Buchmann
    • 1
  • Dorothea Blomeyer
    • 1
  • Nathalie Holz
    • 1
  • Regina Boecker-Schlier
    • 1
  • Christine Jennen-Steinmetz
    • 2
  • Marcella Rietschel
    • 3
  • Stephanie H. Witt
    • 3
  • Martin H. Schmidt
    • 1
  • Günter Esser
    • 4
  • Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg
    • 5
  • Tobias Banaschewski
    • 1
  • Daniel Brandeis
    • 1
    • 6
    • 7
    • 8
  • Erika Hohm
    • 1
  • Manfred Laucht
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty MannheimHeidelberg UniversityMannheimGermany
  2. 2.Department of Biostatistics, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty MannheimHeidelberg UniversityMannheimGermany
  3. 3.Department of Genetic Epidemiology in Psychiatry, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty MannheimHeidelberg UniversityMannheimGermany
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyUniversity of PotsdamPotsdamGermany
  5. 5.Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty MannheimHeidelberg UniversityMannheimGermany
  6. 6.Department of Child and Adolescent PsychiatryUniversity of ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  7. 7.Zurich Center for Integrative Human PhysiologyUniversity of ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  8. 8.Neuroscience Center ZurichUniversity and ETH ZurichZurichSwitzerland

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