Serum uric acid is associated with apathy in early, drug-naïve Parkinson’s disease
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Both low serum uric acid (UA) levels and apathy are considered biomarkers of cognitive decline and dementia in Parkinson’s disease (PD). There is an urgent need to combine different biomarkers to predict disease course in PD. Data on the relationship between serum UA levels and apathy in PD are lacking. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between serum UA levels and pure apathy in early, drug-naïve PD patients. Forty-nine early, drug-naïve PD patients were enrolled and stratified into two groups using the median serum UA levels at diagnosis (Group 1 serum UA ≤ 4.8 mg/dl; Group 2 serum UA > 4.8 mg/dl). The cohort was followed for the first 2 years of disease. Apathy was evaluated with the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES). Patients with lower serum UA levels presented significant higher AES score compared to patients with higher serum UA levels. Regression analysis showed that baseline serum UA levels were significant determinants of AES scores at both baseline and 2-year follow up, irrespective of gender, age, attention/executive functions and dopamine replacement therapy when applicable. This is the first study showing a link between serum UA levels and apathy in non-demented, non-depressed, early, drug-naïve PD, being lower serum UA levels associated with greater apathy. Further follow up of our patients and replication of this observation in independent cohorts are needed to establish if this combination of biomarkers may help in characterizing a subgroup of PD patients at diagnosis.
KeywordsParkinson’s disease Early Parkinson Apathy Acid uric Urate Cognition Biomarker
Compliance with ethical standards
This work was supported by the University of Salerno, FARB 2012 (ORSA127397).
Conflict of interest
On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.
Dr Marina Picillo has received salary from the University of Salerno, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada. She also received grant from the Michael J. Fox Foundation. Dr Marcello Moccia, Prof Giuseppe Orefice have received salary from the Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive Science and Odontostomatology, Federico II University, Naples, Italy. Dr Marianna Amboni has received honoraria for symposia from Boehringer Ingelheim, Lundbeck, Novartis. She has received salary from IDC “Hermitage-Capodimonte”, Naples, Italy. Dr Katia Longo has received salary from IDC Hermitage-Capodimonte, Naples, Italy. Dr Carmine Vitale has received honoraria for symposia from Boehringer Ingelheim, Lundbeck, Novartis, Schwarz Pharma/UCB. He has received salary from IDC Hermitage-Capodimonte and the University of Naples “Parthenope”, Italy. Dr Gabriella Santangelo has received salary from Second University of Naples. Dr Maria Teresa Pellecchia has received honoraria for symposia from Boehringer Ingelheim, Lundbeck, Novartis. She has received salary from the University of Salerno, Italy. Prof Paolo Barone has received honoraria as a Consultant and Advisory Board Memberships for Novartis, Schwarz Pharma/UCB, Merck-Serono, Eisai, Solvay, General Electric and Lundbeck. He has received research support from Boehringer Ingelheim, Novartis, Schwarz Pharma/UCB, Merck-Serono, Solvay, and Lundbeck. He has received salary from the University of Salerno, Italy.
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