Heterogeneity and Individuality: microRNAs in Mental Disorders
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MicroRNAs are about 22 nucleotide long single-stranded RNA molecules, negatively regulating gene expression of a single gene or a gene network. In neural tissues, they have been implicated in developmental and neuroplasticity-related processes, such as neurogenesis, differentiation, apoptosis and long-term potentiation. Their molecular mode of action is reminiscent of findings of genome-wide association studies in mental disorders, unable to attribute the risk of disease to a specific gene, but rather to multiple genes, gene-networks and gene-environment interaction. As such, microRNAs are an attractive target for research. Here, we review clinical studies conducted in humans on microRNAs in mental disorders with a particular focus on schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. The majority of clinical studies have focused on schizophrenia. The most robust finding has been reported for rs1625579 located in MIR137HG, which was associated with schizophrenia on a genome-wide level. Concerning bipolar disorder, major depression and anxiety disorders, promising results have been published, but only a considerably smaller number of clinical studies is available and genome-wide association studies did not suggest a direct link to microRNAs so far. Expression of microRNAs as biomarkers of mental disorders and treatment response is currently emerging with preliminary results. Larger-scaled genetic and functional studies along with translational research are needed to enhance our understanding of microRNAs in mental disorders. These studies will aid in disentangling the complex genetic nature of these disorders and possibly contribute to the development of novel, individualized diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.
KeywordsPsychiatric miRNA Review Psychiatry Disease Clinical
This work was supported by the Interdisciplinary Center for Clinical Research (IZKF), University of Würzburg, project N-258 to LH, and the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG), SFB-TRR-58, projects C02 (KD, JD) and Z02 (JD).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare to have no conflict of interest.
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