Advertisement

Journal of Neural Transmission

, Volume 121, Issue 9, pp 1129–1144 | Cite as

Elucidating the neurophysiological underpinnings of autism spectrum disorder: new developments

  • C. LuckhardtEmail author
  • T. A. Jarczok
  • S. Bender
Psychiatry and Preclinical Psychiatric Studies - Review article

Abstract

The study of neurophysiological approaches together with rare and common risk factors for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) allows elucidating the specific underlying neurobiology of ASD. Whereas most neurophysiologically based research in ASD to date has focussed on case–control differences based on the DSM- or ICD-based categorical ASD diagnosis, more recent studies have aimed at studying genetically and/or neurophysiologically defined homogeneous ASD subgroups for specific neuronal biomarkers. This review addresses the neurophysiological investigation of ASD by evoked and event-related potentials, by EEG/MEG connectivity measures such as coherence, and transcranial magnetic stimulation. As an example of classical neurophysiological studies in ASD, we report event-related potential studies which have illustrated which brain areas and processing stages are affected in the visual perception of socially relevant stimuli. However, a paradigm shift has taken place in recent years focussing on how these findings can be tracked down to basic neuronal functions such as deficits in cortico-cortical connectivity and the interaction between brain areas. Disconnectivity, for example, can again be related to genetically induced shifts in the excitation/inhibition balance. Genetic causes of ASD may be grouped by their effects on the brain’s system level to identify ASD subgroups which respond differentially to therapeutic interventions.

Keywords

Autism Visual event-related potential Mirror neuron Connectivity Transcranial magnetic stimulation Excitation Inhibition 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Dr. Susanne Raisig for proofreading our manuscript. This work was supported by grant FR2069/2-1 of the German Research Foundation DFG (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) to C.M.F., and the LOEWE programme, Neuronal Coordination Research Focus Frankfurt (NeFF), project B1, to S.B. and C.M.F.

References

  1. Abrahams BS, Geschwind DH (2010) Connecting genes to brain in the autism spectrum disorders. Arch Neurol 67(4):395–399Google Scholar
  2. Allison T (1999) Electrophysiological studies of human face perception. I: potentials Generated in occipitotemporal cortex by face and non-face stimuli. Cereb Cortex 9(5):415–430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Amaral DG, Schumann CM, Nordahl CW (2008) Neuroanatomy of autism. Trends Neurosci 31(3):137–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Ameis SH, Szatmari P (2012) Imaging-genetics in autism spectrum disorder: advances, translational impact, and future directions. Front Psychiatry 3Google Scholar
  5. Apicella F, Sicca F, Federico RR, Campatelli G, Muratori F (2013) Fusiform gyrus responses to neutral and emotional faces in children with autism spectrum disorders: a high density ERP study. Behav Brain Res 251:155–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Ashwin C, Chapman E, Colle L, Baron-Cohen S (2006) Impaired recognition of negative basic emotions in autism: a test of the amygdala theory. Soc Neurosci 1(3–4):349–363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bal E, Harden E, Lamb D, van Hecke AV, Denver JW, Porges SW (2010) Emotion recognition in children with autism spectrum disorders: relations to eye gaze and autonomic state. J Autism Dev Disord 40(3):358–370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Barttfeld P, Wicker B, Cukier S et al (2011) A big-world network in ASD: dynamical connectivity analysis reflects a deficit in long-range connections and an excess of short-range connections. Neuropsychologia 49:254–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Batty M, Meaux E, Wittemeyer K, Rogé B, Taylor MJ (2011) Early processing of emotional faces in children with autism: an event-related potential study. J Exp Child Psychol 109(4):430–444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Belmonte MK, Bourgeron T (2006) Fragile X syndrome and autism at the intersection of genetic and neural networks. Nat Neurosci 9(10):1221–1225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bendat JS, Piersol AG (2000) Random data analysis and measurement procedures. Meas Sci Technol 11:1825Google Scholar
  12. Bentin S, Deouell LY (2000) Structural encoding and identification in face processing: ERP evidence for separate mechanisms. Cogn Neuropsychol 17(1–3):35–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bentin S, Allison T, Puce A, Perez E, McCarthy G (1996) Electrophysiological studies of face perception in humans. J Cogn Neurosci 8(6):551–565PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bentin S, Taylor MJ, Rousselet GA, Itier RJ, Caldara R, Schyns PG, Jacques C, Rossion B (2007) Controlling interstimulus perceptual variance does not abolish N170 face sensitivity. Nat Neurosci 10(7):801–802PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Berg JM, Geschwind DH (2012) Autism genetics: searching for specificity and convergence. Genome Biol 13(7):247PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bernier R, Dawson G, Webb S, Murias M (2007) EEG mu rhythm and imitation impairments in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Brain Cogn 64(3):228–237PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bernier R, Aaronson B, McPartland J (2013) The role of imitation in the observed heterogeneity in EEG mu rhythm in autism and typical development. Brain Cogn 82(1):69–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Blair RJR, Frith U, Smith N, Abell F, Cipolotti L (2002) Fractionation of visual memory: agency detection and its impairment in autism. Neuropsychologia 40(1):108–118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Boersma M, Smit DJ, de Bie HM, van Baal GCM, Boomsma DI, de Geus EJ, de Delemarre-van Waal HA, Stam CJ (2011) Network analysis of resting state EEG in the developing young brain: Structure comes with maturation. Hum Brain Mapp 32(3):413–425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Boucher J, Lewis V (1992) Unfamiliar face recognition in relatively able autistic children. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 33(5):843–859PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Boucher J, Lewis V, Collis G (1998) Familiar face and voice matching and recognition in children with autism. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 39(02):171–181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Brock J, Brown CC, Boucher J, Rippon G (2002) The temporal binding deficit hypothesis of autism. Dev Psychopathol 14(02):209–224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Buard I, Rogers SJ, Hepburn S et al (2013) Altered oscillation patterns and connectivity during picture naming in autism. Front Hum Neurosci 7:742PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Burnette CP, Henderson HA, Inge AP et al (2011) Anterior EEG asymmetry and the modifier model of autism. J Autism Dev Disord 41:1113–1124PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Buzsáki G, Draguhn A (2004) Neuronal oscillations in cortical networks. Science 304:1926–1929PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Cantor DS, Thatcher RW, Hrybyk M, Kaye H (1986) Computerized EEG analyses of autistic children. J Autism Dev Disord 16:169–187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Carr L, Iacoboni M, Dubeau M, Mazziotta JC, Lenzi GL (2003) Neural mechanisms of empathy in humans: a relay from neural systems for imitation to limbic areas. Proc Natl Acad Sci 100(9):5497–5502PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Catarino A, Andrade A, Churches O et al (2013) Task-related functional connectivity in autism spectrum conditions: an EEG study using wavelet transform coherence. Mol Autism 4:1PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Churches O, Wheelwright S, Baron-Cohen S, Ring H (2010) The N170 is not modulated by attention in autism spectrum conditions. NeuroReport 21(6):399–403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Churches O, Damiano C, Baron-Cohen S, Ring H (2012) Getting to know you. NeuroReport 23(11):668–672PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Clark VP, Fan S, Hillyard SA (1994) Identification of early visual evoked potential generators by retinotopic and topographic analyses. Hum Brain Mapp 2(3):170–187Google Scholar
  32. Coben R, Clarke AR, Hudspeth W, Barry RJ (2008) EEG power and coherence in autistic spectrum disorder. Clin Neurophysiol 119:1002–1009PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Collins AL, Ma D, Whitehead PL et al (2006) Investigation of autism and GABA receptor subunit genes in multiple ethnic groups. Neurogenetics 7:167–174PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Corden B, Chilvers R, Skuse D (2008) Avoidance of emotionally arousing stimuli predicts social–perceptual impairment in Asperger’s syndrome. Neuropsychologia 46(1):137–147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Dapretto M, Davies MS, Pfeifer JH, Scott AA, Sigman M, Bookheimer SY, Iacoboni M (2006) Understanding emotions in others: mirror neuron dysfunction in children with autism spectrum disorders. Nat Neurosci 9(1):28–30PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Daskalakis ZJ, Farzan F, Barr MS et al (2008) Long-interval cortical inhibition from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex: a TMS–EEG study. Neuropsychopharmacology 33:2860–2869PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Dawson G, Carver L, Meltzoff AN, Panagiotides H, McPartland J, Webb SJ (2002) Neural correlates of face and object recognition in young children with autism spectrum disorder, developmental delay, and typical development. Child Dev 73(3):700–717PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Dawson G, Webb SJ, Carver L, Panagiotides H, McPartland J (2004) Young children with autism show atypical brain responses to fearful versus neutral facial expressions of emotion. Developmental Sci 7(3):340–359Google Scholar
  39. Dawson G, Jones EJH, Merkle K, Venema K, Lowy R, Faja S, Kamara D, Murias M, Greenson J, Winter J (2012) Early behavioral intervention is associated with normalized brain activity in young children with autism. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 51(11):1150–1159PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. de Haan M, Nelson CA (1999) Brain activity differentiates face and object processing in 6-month-old infants. Dev Psychol 35(4):1113–1121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. de Haan M, Pascalis O, Johnson MH (2002) Specialization of neural mechanisms underlying face recognition in human infants. J Cogn Neurosci 14(2):199–209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Di Martino A, Yan C, Li Q, Denio E, Castellanos FX, Alaerts K, Anderson JS, Assaf M, Bookheimer SY, Dapretto M, Deen B, Delmonte S, Dinstein I, Ertl-Wagner B, Fair DA, Gallagher L, Kennedy DP, Keown CL, Keysers C, Lainhart JE, Lord C, Luna B, Menon V, Minshew NJ, Monk CS, Mueller S, Müller R, Nebel MB, Nigg JT, O’Hearn K, Pelphrey KA, Peltier SJ, Rudie JD, Sunaert S, Thioux M, Tsyzka JM, Uddin LQ, Vehoeven JS, Wenderoth N, Wiggins JL, Mostofsky SH, Milham MP (2013) The autism brain imaging data exchange: towards a large-scale evaluation of the intrinsic brain architecture in autism. Mol Psychiatry 19(6):659–667PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Di Russo F, Martinez A, Sereno MI, Pitzalis S, Hillyard SA (2002) Cortical sources of the early components of the visual evoked potential. Hum Brain Mapp 15(2):95–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Duffy FH, Als H (2012) A stable pattern of EEG spectral coherence distinguishes children with autism from neuro-typical controls-a large case control study. BMC Med 10:64PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Duffy FH, Shankardass A, McAnulty GB, Als H (2013) The relationship of Asperger’s syndrome to autism: a preliminary EEG coherence study. BMC Med 11:175PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Eimer M (2000a) Event-related brain potentials distinguish processing stages involved in face perception and recognition. Clin Neurophysiol 111(4):694–705PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Eimer M (2000b) Effects of face inversion on the structural encoding and recognition of faces: evidence from event-related brain potentials. Cogn Brain Res 10(1):145–158Google Scholar
  48. Eimer M (2000c) The face-specific N170 component reflects late stages in the structural encoding of faces. NeuroReport 11(10):2319–2324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Enticott PG, Rinehart NJ, Tonge BJ et al (2010) A preliminary transcranial magnetic stimulation study of cortical inhibition and excitability in high-functioning autism and Asperger disorder. Dev Med Child Neurol 52:e179–e183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Enticott PG, Kennedy HA, Rinehart NJ, et al (2013) GABAergic activity in autism spectrum disorders: an investigation of cortical inhibition via transcranial magnetic stimulation. Neuropharmacology 202–209Google Scholar
  51. Everett JAC (2013) Is the N170 face specific? Controversy, context, and theory. Neuropsychol Trends 13(1):7–26Google Scholar
  52. Faja S, Webb SJ, Jones E, Merkle K, Kamara D, Bavaro J, Aylward E, Dawson G (2012) The effects of face expertise training on the behavioral performance and brain activity of adults with high functioning autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord 42(2):278–293PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Fan Y, Decety J, Yang C, Liu J, Cheng Y (2010) Unbroken mirror neurons in autism spectrum disorders. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 51(9):981–988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Fatemi SH, Reutiman TJ, Folsom TD, Thuras PD (2008) GABAA receptor downregulation in brains of subjects with autism. J Autism Dev Disord 39:223–230PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Freitag CM (2007) The genetics of autistic disorders and its clinical relevance: a review of the literature. Mol Psychiatry 12:2–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Freitag CM, Staal W, Klauck SM, Duketis E, Waltes R (2010) Genetics of autistic disorders: review and clinical implications. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 19(3):169–178PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Frith C (2004) Is autism a disconnection disorder? Lancet Neurol 3(10):577PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Gallese V, Goldman A (1998) Mirror neurons and the simulation theory of mind-reading. Trends Cogn Sci 2(12):493–501PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Ganis G, Smith D, Schendan HE (2012) The N170, not the P1, indexes the earliest time for categorical perception of faces, regardless of interstimulus variance. Neuroimage 62(3):1563–1574PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Gilbert DL, Isaacs KM, Augusta M et al (2011) Motor cortex inhibition: a marker of ADHD behavior and motor development in children. Neurology 76:615–621PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Gray CM, König P, Engel AK, Singer W (1989) Oscillatory responses in cat visual cortex exhibit inter-columnar synchronization which reflects global stimulus properties. Nature 338:334–337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Hagerman R, Hoem G, Hagerman P (2010) Fragile X and autism: intertwined at the molecular level leading to targeted treatments. Mol Autism 1(1):12PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Halit H, Md Haan, Johnson MH (2003) Cortical specialisation for face processing: face-sensitive event-related potential components in 3- and 12-month-old infants. Neuroimage 19(3):1180–1193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Hall SS, Jiang H, Reiss AL, Greicius MD (2013) Identifying large-scale brain networks in fragile X syndrome. JAMA Psychiatry 70(11):1215  Google Scholar
  65. Happé F, Frith U (2006) The weak coherence account: detail-focused cognitive style in autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord 36(1):5–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Happé F, Ronald A, Plomin R (2006) Time to give up on a single explanation for autism. Nat Neurosci 9(10):1218–1220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Harms MB, Martin A, Wallace GL (2010) Facial emotion recognition in autism spectrum disorders: a review of behavioral and neuroimaging studies. Neuropsychol Rev 20(3):290–322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Hatton DD, Sideris J, Skinner M, Mankowsky J, Bailey DB, Roberts J, Mirett P (2006) Autistic bahvior in children with fragile X syndrome: prevalence, stability, and the impact of FMRP. Am J Med Genet Part A 140(17):1804–1813Google Scholar
  69. Herrmann MJ, Ehlis A, Ellgring H, Fallgatter AJ (2005a) Early stages (P100) of face perception in humans as measured with event-related potentials (ERPs). J Neural Transm 112(8):1073–1081PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Herrmann MJ, Ehlis A, Muehlberger A, Fallgatter AJ (2005b) Source localization of early stages of face processing. Brain Topogr 18(2):77–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Hileman CM, Henderson H, Mundy P, Newell L, Jaime M (2011) Developmental and individual differences on the P1 and N170 ERP components in children with and without autism. Devel Neuropsychol 36(2):214–236Google Scholar
  72. Howard MA, Cowell PE, Boucher J, Broks P, Mayes A, Farrant A, Roberts N (2000) Convergent neuroanatomical and behavioural evidence of an amygdala hypothesis of autism. NeuroReport 11(13):2931–2935PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Iacoboni M (2005) Neural mechanisms of imitation. Curr Opin Neurobiol 15(6):632–637PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Iacoboni M, Dapretto M (2006) The mirror neuron system and the consequences of its dysfunction. Nat Rev Neurosci 7(12):942–951PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Iacoboni M, Molnar-Szakacs I, Gallese V, Buccino G, Mazziotta JC, Rizzolatti G (2005) Grasping the intentions of others with one’s own mirror neuron system. PLoS Biol 3(3):e79PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Isler JR, Martien KM, Grieve PG et al (2010) Reduced functional connectivity in visual evoked potentials in children with autism spectrum disorder. Clin Neurophysiol 121:2035–2043PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Itier RJ, Taylor MJ (2002) Inversion and contrast polarity reversal affect both encoding and recognition processes of unfamiliar faces: a repetition study using ERPs. Neuroimage 15(2):353–372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Itier RJ, Taylor MJ (2004) Source analysis of the N170 to faces and objects. NeuroReport 15(8):1261–1265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Jedlicka P, Vnencak M, Krueger DD, et al (2013) Neuroligin-1 regulates excitatory synaptic transmission, LTP and EPSP-spike coupling in the dentate gyrus in vivo. Brain Struct Funct pp 1–12Google Scholar
  80. Jones W, Klin A (2009) Heterogeneity and homogeneity across the autism spectrum: the role of development. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 48(5):471–473PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Just MA, Cherkassky VL, Keller TA, Minshew NJ (2004) Cortical activation and synchronization during sentence comprehension in high-functioning autism: evidence of underconnectivity. Brain 127(8):1811–1821PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Khan S, Gramfort A, Shetty NR et al (2013) Local and long-range functional connectivity is reduced in concert in autism spectrum disorders. Proc Natl Acad Sci 110:3107–3112PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Kikuchi M, Shitamichi K, Yoshimura Y et al (2013) Altered brain connectivity in 3-to 7-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder. NeuroImage 2:394–401PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Kleinhans NM, Müller RA, Cohen DN, Courchesne E (2008a) Atypical functional lateralization of language in autism spectrum disorders. Brain Res 1221:115–125PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Kleinhans NM, Richards T, Sterling L, Stegbauer KC, Mahurin R, Johnson LC, Greenson J, Dawson G, Aylward E (2008b) Abnormal functional connectivity in autism spectrum disorders during face processing. Brain 131(4):1000–1012PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Kröger A, Bletsch A, Krick C, Siniatchkin M, Jarczok TA, Freitag CM, Bender S (2013) Visual event-related potentials to biological motion stimuli in autism spectrum disorders. Social Cogn Affect NeurosciGoogle Scholar
  87. Kujirai T, Caramia MD, Rothwell JC et al (1993) Corticocortical inhibition in human motor cortex. J Physiol 471:501–519PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Lichtenstein P, Carlstrom E, Rastam M, Gillberg C, Anckarsater H (2010) The genetics of autism spectrum disorders and related neuropsychiatric disorders in childhood. Am J Psychiatry 167(11):1357–1363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Marshall PJ, Bar-Haim Y, Fox NA (2002) Development of the EEG from 5 months to 4 years of age. Clin Neurophysiol 113(8):1199–1208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Mathewson KJ, Jetha MK, Drmic IE et al (2012) Regional EEG alpha power, coherence, and behavioral symptomatology in autism spectrum disorder. Clin Neurophysiol 123:1798–1809PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Meyer-Lindenberg A, Domes G, Kirsch P, Heinrichs M (2011) Oxytocin and vasopressin in the human brain: social neuropeptides for translational medicine. Nat Rev Neurosci 12(9):524–538PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Miniussi C, Thut G (2009) Combining TMS and EEG offers new prospects in cognitive neuroscience. Brain Topogr 22:249–256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Moll GH, Wischer S, Heinrich H et al (1999) Deficient motor control in children with tic disorder: evidence from transcranial magnetic stimulation. Neurosci Lett 272:37–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Murias M, Webb SJ, Greenson J, Dawson G (2007) Resting state cortical connectivity reflected in EEG coherence in individuals with autism. Biol Psychiatry 62:270–273PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Muthukumaraswamy SD, Johnson BW, McNair NA (2004) Mu rhythm modulation during observation of an object-directed grasp. Cogn Brain Res 19(2):195–201Google Scholar
  96. O’Connor K, Hamm JP, Kirk IJ (2005) The neurophysiological correlates of face processing in adults and children with Asperger’s syndrome. Brain Cogn 59(1):82–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Oberman LM, Hubbard EM, McCleery JP, Altschuler EL, Ramachandran VS, Pineda JA (2005) EEG evidence for mirror neuron dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders. Cogn Brain Res 24(2):190–198Google Scholar
  98. Oberman LM, Ramachandran VS, Pineda JA (2008) Modulation of μ suppression in children with autism spectrum disorders in response to familiar or unfamiliar stimuli: the mirror neuron hypothesis. Neuropsychologia 46(5):1558–1565PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Oberman L, Ifert-Miller F, Najib U et al (2010) Transcranial magnetic stimulation provides means to assess cortical plasticity and excitability in humans with fragile X syndrome and autism spectrum disorder. Front Synaptic Neurosci 2:26PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Pfurtscheller G, Neuper C, Andrew C, Edlinger G (1997) Foot and hand area mu rhythms. Int J Psychophysiol 26(1–3):121–135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Ramachandran VS (2000) Mirror neurons and imitation learning as the driving force behind “the great leap forward” in human evolution. Edge Website article http://www.edge.org/3rd_culture/ramachandran/ramachandran_p1.html
  102. Raymaekers R, Wiersema JR, Roeyers H (2009) EEG study of the mirror neuron system in children with high functioning autism. Brain Res 1304:113–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Rizzolatti G, Arbib MA (1998) Language within our grasp. Trends Neurosci 21(5):188–194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Rizzolatti G, Craighero L (2004) The mirror-neuron system. Annu Rev Neurosci 27(1):169–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Rizzolatti G, Sinigaglia C (2010) The functional role of the parieto-frontal mirror circuit: interpretations and misinterpretations. Nat Rev Neurosci 11(4):264–274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Rossion B, Jacques C (2008) Does physical interstimulus variance account for early electrophysiological face sensitive responses in the human brain? Ten lessons on the N170. Neuroimage 39(4):1959–1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Rossion B, Delvenne J, Debatisse D, Goffaux V, Bruyer R, Crommelinck M, Guérit J (1999) Spatio-temporal localization of the face inversion effect: an event-related potentials study. Biol Psychol 50(3):173–189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Rubenstein JLR, Merzenich MM (2003) Model of autism: increased ratio of excitation/inhibition in key neural systems. Genes Brain Behav 2:255–267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Rudvin I, Valberg A, Kilavik BE (2000) Visual evoked potentials and magnocellular and parvocellular segregation. Vis Neurosci 17(04):579–590PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Schendan HE, Ganis G (2013) Face-specificity is robust across diverse stimuli and individual people, even when interstimulus variance is zero. Psychophysiol 50(3):287–291Google Scholar
  111. Shigeto H, Tobimatsu S, Yamamoto T, Kobayashi T, Kato M (1998) Visual evoked cortical magnetic responses to checkerboard pattern reversal stimulation: a study on the neural generators of N75, P100 and N145. J Neurol Sci 156(2):186–194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Srinivasan R, Winter WR, Ding J, Nunez PL (2007) EEG and MEG coherence: measures of functional connectivity at distinct spatial scales of neocortical dynamics. J Neurosci Methods 166:41–52PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Stroganova TA, Nygren G, Tsetlin MM et al (2007) Abnormal EEG lateralization in boys with autism. Clin Neurophysiol 118:1842–1854PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Tabuchi K, Blundell J, Etherton MR et al (2007) A neuroligin-3 mutation implicated in autism increases inhibitory synaptic transmission in mice. Science 318:71–76PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Tantam D, Monaghan L, Nicholson H, Stirling J (1989) Autistic children’s ability to interpret faces: a research note. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 30(4):623–630PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Taylor MJ (2002) Non-spatial attentional effects on P1. Clin Neurophysiol 113(12):1903–1908PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Theoret H, Halligan E, Kobayashi M et al (2005) Impaired motor facilitation during action observation in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Curr Biol 15:R84–R85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Thierry G, Martin CD, Downing P, Pegna AJ (2007) Controlling for interstimulus perceptual variance abolishes N170 face selectivity. Nat NeurosciGoogle Scholar
  119. Tost H, Kolachana B, Hakimi S, Lemaitre H, Verchinski BA, Mattay VS, Weinberger DR, Meyer-Lindenberg A (2010) A common allele in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) impacts prosocial temperament and human hypothalamic-limbic structure and function. Proc Natl Acad Sci 107(31):13936–13941PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Tsiaras V, Simos PG, Rezaie R et al (2011) Extracting biomarkers of autism from MEG resting-state functional connectivity networks. Comput Biol Med 41:1166–1177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Wallace S, Coleman M, Bailey A (2008) An investigation of basic facial expression recognition in autism spectrum disorders. Cogn Emot 22(7):1353–1380Google Scholar
  122. Webb SJ, Dawson G, Bernier R, Panagiotides H (2006) ERP evidence of atypical face processing in young children with autism. J Autism Dev Disord 36(7):881–890PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Webb SJ, Jones EJH, Merkle K, Murias M, Greenson J, Richards T, Aylward E, Dawson G (2010) Response to familiar faces, newly familiar faces, and novel faces as assessed by ERPs is intact in adults with autism spectrum disorders. Int J Psychophysiol 77(2):106–117PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Webb SJ, Jones EJH, Merkle K, Venema K, Greenson J, Murias M, Dawson G (2011) Developmental change in the ERP responses to familiar faces in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders versus typical development. Child Dev 82(6):1868–1886PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Webb SJ, Merkle K, Murias M, Richards T, Aylward E, Dawson G (2012) ERP responses differentiate inverted but not upright face processing in adults with ASD. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 7(5):578–587PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Whittingstall K, Stroink G, Schmidt M (2007) Evaluating the spatial relationship of event-related potential and functional MRI sources in the primary visual cortex. Hum Brain Mapp 28(2):134–142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Williams JHG, Whiten A, Suddendorf T, Perrett DI (2001) Imitation, mirror neurons and autism. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 25(4):287–295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Wilson TW, Rojas DC, Reite ML et al (2007) Children and adolescents with autism exhibit reduced MEG steady-state gamma responses. Biol Psychiatry 62:192–197PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Wong TKW, Fung PCW, Chua SE, McAlonan GM (2008) Abnormal spatiotemporal processing of emotional facial expressions in childhood autism: dipole source analysis of event-related potentials. Eur J Neurosci 28(2):407–416PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Ziemann U (2003) Pharmacology of TMS. Suppl Clin Neurophysiol 56:226–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Ziemann U (2011) Transcranial magnetic stimulation at the interface with other techniques: a powerful tool for studying the human cortex. Neuroscientist 17:368–381PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and PsychotherapyJW Goethe University FrankfurtFrankfurt am MainGermany

Personalised recommendations