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Journal of Neural Transmission

, Volume 121, Issue 8, pp 945–955 | Cite as

The role of glutamate and its receptors in multiple sclerosis

  • Ivana R. Stojanovic
  • Milos Kostic
  • Srdjan Ljubisavljevic
Neurology and Preclinical Neurological Studies - Review Article

Abstract

Glutamate is an excitatory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system, which has a central role in a complex communication network established between neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia. Multiple abnormal triggers such as energy deficiency, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and calcium overload can lead to abnormalities in glutamate signaling. Thus, the disturbance of glutamate homeostasis could affect practically all physiological functions and interactions of brain cells, leading to excitotoxicity. Excitotoxicity is the pathological process by which nerve cells are damaged or killed by excessive stimulation by glutamate. Although neuron degeneration and death are the ultimate consequences of multiple sclerosis (MS), it is now widely accepted that alterations in the function of surrounding glial cells are key features in the progression of the disease. The present knowledge raise the possibility that the modulation of glutamate release and transport, as well as receptors blockade or glutamate metabolism modulation, might be relevant targets for the development of future therapeutic interventions in MS.

Keywords

Multiple sclerosis Glutamate Excitotoxicity Neurodegeneration 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This paper was supported by The Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia under the project number 41018.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ivana R. Stojanovic
    • 1
  • Milos Kostic
    • 1
  • Srdjan Ljubisavljevic
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of MedicineUniversity of NisNisSerbia and Montenegro

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