Musculoskeletal problems in Parkinson’s disease
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Musculoskeletal problems are very common and are an important contributor to poor quality of life in Parkinson’s disease. However, they are under-appreciated, under-evaluated, and under-treated. This paper will address the prevalence of musculoskeletal problems in Parkinson’s disease, and review the clinical characteristics of selected musculoskeletal conditions, such as shoulder problems, low back pain, arthritis, deformity, osteoporosis and fracture. Finally, a variety of treatment modalities for musculoskeletal problems will be reviewed.
KeywordsMusculoskeletal Parkinson disease Low back pain: shoulder pain Osteoporosis Fractures
J.B.S. is supported by a grant of the Korea Health technology R&D Project, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Republic of Korea (A101273).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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